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Eur J Neurol. 2017 Dec;24(12):1464-1470. doi: 10.1111/ene.13440. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Galectin-3 and risk of ischaemic stroke: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke cohort.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
2
Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA.
3
Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.
4
Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
5
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.
6
Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
7
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.
8
Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Galectin-3 is a biomarker of atherosclerotic and cardiovascular disease, and may be a useful marker for ischaemic stroke risk.

METHODS:

The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort enrolled and examined 30 239 US participants between 2003 and 2007 (41% black, 59% white and 55% in the southeastern stroke belt). Baseline galectin-3 was measured in 526 subjects with incident ischaemic stroke over 5.4 years and in a cohort random sample (CRS) of 947 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of ischaemic stroke by quartiles of galectin-3.

RESULTS:

In the CRS, galectin-3 was significantly higher with older age, black race, female sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and kidney disease, and also in those who developed incident stroke. Participants with galectin-3 levels in the fourth versus first quartile had a 2.3-fold increased stroke risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6, 3.4] in an unadjusted model. An interaction with age was found (P = 0.06), and therefore age-stratified analyses were performed. Amongst those younger than age 64, baseline galectin-3 in the second-fourth quartiles was associated with increased stroke risk (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6, 5.5) compared to the first quartile in an age-, race- and sex-adjusted model. The HR was 2.0 (95% CI 1.0, 4.0) with multivariable adjustment. There was no association amongst older participants.

CONCLUSIONS:

Galectin-3 was associated with incident ischaemic stroke in younger but not older individuals. Confirmation of this finding, and elucidation of its implications for stroke pathophysiology and prevention, is needed.

KEYWORDS:

aging; biomarkers; cerebrovascular disease/stroke; epidemiology; galectin-3; inflammation; ischaemic stroke; risk factors

PMID:
28872212
DOI:
10.1111/ene.13440
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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