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1.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Oct;61(10):1135-1140. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000001209.

The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Chronic Radiation Proctitis.

Author information

1
University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2
Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado.
3
Al Zahra Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
4
Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.
5
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
PMID:
30192320
DOI:
10.1097/DCR.0000000000001209
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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2.
Gene. 2018 Dec 30;679:90-99. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.08.077. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Activation of small heat shock protein (SlHSP17.7) gene by cell wall invertase inhibitor (SlCIF1) gene involved in sugar metabolism in tomato.

Author information

1
College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture of Education Ministry, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China.
2
College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture of Education Ministry, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China. Electronic address: jiangj_syau@syau.edu.cn.

Abstract

Fruit quality formation involves a series of physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening. Sucrose metabolism plays not only important roles in fruit ripening to establish energy status and nutritional quality but also a non-nutritive role in gene expression. In carbon metabolism and fruit ripening, cell wall invertases (CWINs) perform essential regulatory functions. Knowledge regarding the gene expression changes that occur following the repression of CWIN activity in fruit through the overexpression of a cell-wall inhibitor of β-fructosidase (CIF) under a fruit-specific promoter is limited. To further explore the molecular mechanism of sucrose regulation, global expression profiling of the fruits of transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants carrying a cell wall invertase inhibitor (SlCIF1) gene was performed using a microarray. In total, 622 and 833 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The expression of the SlHSP17.7 gene was increased by thousands of times in the transgenic-SlCIF1 tomato. Then, SlHSP17.7-RNA interference (RNAi) lines were generated by introducing pB7GWIWG2 (I)-SlHSP17.7 into wild-type chmielewskii tomatoes (WT). The sucrose and fructose contents significantly decreased in the RNAi fruits compared with those in the WT. Furthermore, 14 sugar metabolism related genes were also decreased synergistically by silencing SlHSP17.7 gene. Our data indicate that the posttranslational modulation of CWIN activity by SlCIF1 contributes to earlier bloom times. SlHSP17.7 and sugar can interact to regulate the development of tomato fruit and affect the quality of tomato, providing a different insight into improving the quality of tomato.

KEYWORDS:

Expression analysis; Microarray; SlHSP17.7; Sugar metabolism; Tomato

PMID:
30176314
DOI:
10.1016/j.gene.2018.08.077
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
3.
Yakugaku Zasshi. 2018;138(9):1163-1167. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.18-00104.

[Design of Spray-dried Porous Particles for Sugar-based Dry Powder Inhaler Formulation].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

1
Laboratory of Formulation Design and Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Abstract

 For efficient and deeper drug delivery into the lungs via dry powder inhalers (DPIs), we designed porous spray-dried particles (SDPs) containing anti-tuberculosis drugs and sugar-based excipients. The SDPs were prepared by spray-drying ethanol solutions containing isoniazid and/or rifampicin and sucrose, maltose, or highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD). Solid-state fluorescence emission spectroscopy showed that 1-naphthoic acid (1-NPA), a model drug, was dispersed in a molecular dispersion/solid solution, suggesting high potential of HBCD as an excipient in DPIs. 1-NPA was dispersed not only as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) molecules with HBCD, but also as fine crystals. Morphological examination showed that the fine particles of HBCD/anti-tuberculosis drugs were porous, indicating high aerodynamic performance. Isoniazid and rifampicin could also be incorporated into the HBCD matrix. HBCD formulations exhibited higher released doses and fine-particle fractions than sucrose and maltose formulations, and could incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.

KEYWORDS:

1-naphthoic acid; fluorescence spectra; highly branched cyclic dextrin; isoniazid; rifampicin

PMID:
30175760
DOI:
10.1248/yakushi.18-00104
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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4.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Aug;97(34):e11996. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011996.

Mulberry leaf extract reduces the glycemic indexes of four common dietary carbohydrates.

Author information

1
Medical institution conducting clinical trials for human used drug, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin.
2
Botanic Century (Beijing) Co, Ltd.
3
Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a component of mulberry leaf extract (MLE), reduces postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting intestinal a-glycosidase. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effects of MLE on the glycemic indexes (GI) of common dietary carbohydrates.

METHODS:

This single-center, randomized, open-label, 7-cycle self-controlled crossover study enrolled 15 healthy volunteers at the National Drug Clinical Trial Institution, Second Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (June 2014 to December 2014). The participants were randomized to receive glucose (3 occasions), glucose+MLE, sucrose+MLE, maltose+MLE, and maltodextrin+MLE orally during 7 visits (every 3 days). Blood glucose level was tested at 15 minutes before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after carbohydrate intake. The GI of each carbohydrate relative to glucose (GI = 100) was calculated using the incremental area under the curve method. Safety was assessed at each visit.

RESULTS:

All participants completed the protocol. After carbohydrate ingestion, blood glucose level peaked at 30 minutes (glucose, glucose+MLE, sucrose+MLE, and maltose+MLE) or 45 minutes (maltodextrin+MLE) before returning to preprandial levels at 120 minutes. At 30 minutes, the change in blood glucose level was lower for sucrose+MLE, maltose+MLE, and maltodextrin+MLE than for glucose or glucose+MLE (P < .05). GI was lowest for sucrose+MLE (43.22 ± 17.47) and maltose+MLE (49.23 ± 22.39), intermediate for maltodextrin+MLE (75.90 ± 26.01), and higher for glucose+MLE (91.88 ± 27.24). MLE reduced the GIs for maltose, sucrose, maltodextrin, and glucose by 53.11%, 33.51%, 31.00%, and 8.12%, respectively. MLE was well tolerated.

CONCLUSIONS:

Coconsumption of MLE with sucrose, maltose, or maltodextrin can reduce the GI values of these carbohydrates.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Platform, no. ChiCTR-IPR-15006484. Registered on May 28, 2015.

PMID:
30142838
PMCID:
PMC6113008
DOI:
10.1097/MD.0000000000011996
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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5.
Plant Sci. 2018 Sep;274:332-340. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.06.003. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Combinatorial interaction of two adjacent cis-active promoter regions mediates the synergistic induction of Bt2 gene by sucrose and ABA in maize endosperm.

Author information

1
Institute of Ecological Agriculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China; College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: liyangping163@163.com.
2
College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: 2002ygw@163.com.
3
College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: 2581595690@qq.com.
4
College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: 809324222@qq.com.
5
Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: 21236326@qq.com.
6
Institute of Ecological Agriculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China; College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: huyufeng@sohu.com.
7
College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, Sichuan, 625014, China. Electronic address: hanmeil@163.com.
8
College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, Sichuan, 625014, China. Electronic address: junjiezh@163.com.
9
Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: 18926348@qq.com.
10
Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: aumdyms@sicau.edu.cn.
11
College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address: yubihuang@sohu.com.

Abstract

The accumulation of starch in cereal endosperm is a key process that determines crop yield and quality. Research has reported that sucrose and abscisic acid (ABA) synergistically regulate the synthesis of crop starch. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind this synergistic effect. In this study, the effect of sucrose and ABA on starch synthesis in maize endosperm was investigated. The starch content, the ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) concentration, and the expression of AGPase-encoding genes were found to be enhanced slightly by sucrose or ABA alone, but were elevated significantly by the co-treatment of sucrose and ABA. Truncation analysis of the Bt2 promoter via transient expression in maize endosperm showed that the promoter region (-370/-186) is involved in sucrose response, and that an adjacent region (-186/-43) responds to ABA. The synergistic induction of sucrose and ABA on Bt2 promoter activity requires interaction with both of these regions. Interestingly, removal of the sucrose-responsive region (-370 to -186) abolishes ABA responsiveness in the Bt2 promoter, even in the presence of ABA-responsive region (-186 to -43). This study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that underlie the synergistic regulation of starch synthesis and grain filling from sucrose and ABA in cereal endosperm.

KEYWORDS:

Abscisic acid; Bt2; Maize endosperm; Promoter regions; Sucrose; Synergistic induction

PMID:
30080620
DOI:
10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.06.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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6.
Plant Sci. 2018 Sep;274:261-270. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.05.034. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

OsHAK1 controls the vegetative growth and panicle fertility of rice by its effect on potassium-mediated sugar metabolism.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, MOA Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Lower-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China. Electronic address: chenguang0066@126.com.
2
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, PR China.
3
State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, MOA Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Lower-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China.
4
State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, MOA Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Lower-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China. Electronic address: ghxu@njau.edu.cn.
5
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, PR China. Electronic address: qianqian188@hotmail.com.

Abstract

Plant growth and reproduction are both energy-requiring processes; the necessary energy is supplied by the products of photosynthesis. Both the vegetative growth and reproductive success of rice are compromised by the absence of a functional copy of the gene OsHAK1. Here, a comparison between wild type rice and OsHAK1 knockout mutants not only confirmed the known detrimental effect of the absence of OsHAK1 on root growth, pollen viability and fertility, but also showed that sucrose phosphate synthase activity was lowered, and the sucrose content of the leaves was markedly increased, due to a partial block on the up-loading of sucrose into the phloem. The impaired allocation of sugar to the roots and spikelets caused by the knocking out of OsHAK1 was accompanied by a down-regulation in the leaf sheaths and panicle axes of genes encoding sucrose transporters (SUT genes), which are active in the phloem, as well as in the roots and spikelets of those encoding monosaccharide transporters (MST genes), which transport hexose sugars across the plant plasma membrane. The activity of sucrose synthase, acid invertase and neutral invertase in the roots of mutant plants assayed at the tillering stage, and in their spikelets, assayed during grain-filling, was significantly lower than in the equivalent organs of wild type plants. As a result, the supply of total soluble sugar, glucose and fructose to sink organs was reduced, consistent with the effect of the mutation on root growth and panicle fertility. Compared to wild type plants, the mutants accumulated less potassium (K) throughout the plant. The conclusion was that the failure to fully supply the demand of the mutant's sink organs for assimilate was responsible for its compromised phenotype, and that the deficiency in K uptake induced by the loss of OsHAK1 functionality was responsible for the disruption of sugar metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

Carbohydrate metabolism; Oryza sativa; Potassium deficiency; Root growth; Spikelet fertility

PMID:
30080612
DOI:
10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.05.034
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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7.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2018;41(8):1291-1294. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b18-00208.

Development of an Alcohol Dilution-Lyophilization Method for Preparing Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Encapsulated siRNA.

Author information

1
Laboratory of DDS Design and Drug Disposition, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University.
2
NOF CORPORATION.

Abstract

Systems for delivering nucleic acids are now fundamental technologies for realizing personalized medicine. Among the various nucleic acid delivery systems that are currently available, lipid-nanoparticles (LNPs) that contain short interfering RNA (siRNA) have been extensively investigated for clinical applications. LNPs are generally prepared by an alcohol dilution method. In this method, it is necessary to remove the alcohol and then concentrate the LNP sample before they can be used. In this study, we report on the development of an "alcohol dilution-lyophilization method" for preparing siRNA-encapsulating LNPs. This method involves the use of a freeze-drying (lyophilization) method to remove the residual alcohol and to simultaneously concentrate the preparation. At first, the compositions of cryoprotectants and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids that were used were optimized from the point of view of particle stabilization. A combination of sucrose and 1-(monomethoxy polyethyleneglycol5000)-2,3-dimyristoylglycerol (DMG-PEG5000) was found to have the most efficient cryoprotective activity for the LNPs. The knockdown efficiency of the LNP prepared by the alcohol dilution-lyophilization method was comparable to that of an LNP prepared by the conventional ultrafiltration method.

KEYWORDS:

drug delivery system; freeze drying; lipid nano particle; short interfering RNA (siRNA)

PMID:
30068880
DOI:
10.1248/bpb.b18-00208
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
Bioresour Technol. 2018 Oct;265:577-580. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.081. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

High and efficient isomaltulose production using an engineered Yarrowia lipolytica strain.

Author information

1
Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266101, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Polar Fishery, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China. Electronic address: wangzp@ysfri.ac.cn.
3
Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Polar Fishery, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China.
4
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomass-based Energy and Enzyme Technology, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian, Jiangsu 223300, China.
5
College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China.

Abstract

Isomaltulose is an ideal functional sweetener and has been approved as a safe sucrose substitute. It is produced mainly through sucrose isomerization catalyzed by sucrose isomerase. Here, to produce food-grade isomaltulose and improve its yield, the sucrose isomerase gene from Pantoea dispersa UQ68J was overexpressed in the non-pathogenic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. When the engineered strain, S47, was fermented on 600 g/L sucrose in a 10-L bioreactor, a maximum isomaltulose concentration of 572.1 g/L was achieved. Sucrose isomerase activity was 7.43 U/mL, and yield reached 0.96 g/g. Moreover, monosaccharide byproducts were simultaneously transformed into intracellular lipids, thus reducing the production of undesirable compounds and resulting in high isomaltulose purity (97.8%) in the final broth. In summary, the bioprocess employed in this study provides an efficient alternative strategy for isomaltulose production.

KEYWORDS:

Invertase; Isomaltulose; Sucrose isomerase; Yarrowia lipolytica

PMID:
30056834
DOI:
10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.081
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018 Jul;19(10):1137-1148. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2018.1491548. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

Author information

1
a Division of Nephrology and Hypertension , NorthShore University Health System, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine , Evanston , IL , USA.
2
b Department of Nephrology and Clinical Immunology, Division of Nephrology , RWTH University Hospital Aachen , Aachen , Germany.

Abstract

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide is a non-calcium, iron-based phosphate binder indicated for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis. Areas covered: Herein, the preclinical development and clinical data for sucroferric oxyhydroxide are reviewed, including the key data from the Phase III registration study and the latest evidence from the real-world clinical setting. Expert opinion: Sucroferric oxyhydroxide displays potent phosphate-binding capacity and clinical studies demonstrate its effectiveness for the long-term reduction of serum phosphorus levels in dialysis patients. Observational study data also show that sucroferric oxyhydroxide provides effective serum phosphorus control for hyperphosphatemic patients in the real-world clinical setting. The serum phosphorus reductions with sucroferric oxyhydroxide can be achieved with a relatively low pill burden in comparison with other phosphate binders, which may translate into better treatment adherence in clinical practice. The Phase III data also indicate that sucroferric oxyhydroxide has a favorable impact on other chronic kidney disease-related mineral bone disease parameters, including a fibroblast growth factor-23-lowering effect. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide is well tolerated and associated with low systemic iron absorption, minimizing the potential for iron accumulation or overload. These attributes render sucroferric oxyhydroxide an attractive non-calcium-containing phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic kidney disease; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; phosphate binder; sucroferric oxyhydroxide

PMID:
29985725
DOI:
10.1080/14656566.2018.1491548
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018 Jun 23;16(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s12958-018-0378-2.

Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and serum testosterone levels in adult males 20-39 years old in the United States.

Author information

1
The First Division in the Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106th of Zhongshan Er Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China. liangchen2@medsub.cn.
2
GuangDong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. yumeixie33@medsub.cn.
3
The First Division in the Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106th of Zhongshan Er Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This population-based study was designed to investigate whether consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is associated with lower serum total testosterone concentration in men 20-39 years old.

METHODS:

All data for this study were retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. The primary outcome was serum testosterone concentration, and main independent variable was SSB intake. Other variables included age, race/ethnicity, poverty/income ratio, body mass index (BMI), serum cotinine, heavy drinking, and physical activity.

RESULTS:

Among all subjects (N = 545), 486 (90.4%) had normal testosterone levels (defined as ≥231 ng/dL) and 59 (9.6%) had low testosterone levels (defined as < 231 ng/dL). Multivariate logistic regression revealed the odds of low testosterone was significantly greater with increasing SSB consumption (Q4 [≥442 kcal/day] vs. Q1 [≤137 kcal/day]), adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.29, p = 0.041]. After adjusting for possible confounding variables, BMI was an independent risk factor for low testosterone level; subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 had a higher risk of having a low testosterone level than those with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (aOR = 3.68, p = 0.044).

CONCLUSION:

SSB consumption is significantly associated with low serum testosterone in men 20-39 years old in the United States.

KEYWORDS:

Hypogonadism; National Health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES); Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); Testosterone

PMID:
29935533
PMCID:
PMC6015465
DOI:
10.1186/s12958-018-0378-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2018 Jun 18;50(3):560-563.

[Effect of smear layer on apical sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Plus through the sucrose penetration mode].

[Article in Chinese]

Author information

1
Department of Stomatology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China, Beijing 100045, China.
2
Fourth Clinical Division, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing 100025, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the effect of smear layer on apical sealing ability in teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Plus as retrofilling materials.

METHODS:

Fifty freshly extracted maxillary anterior teeth or premolars with single root canal were used in this study. All teeth were instrumented to master apical point 60# by using the stepback technique, obturated with lateral condensation technique, and then apical resected. A rootend cavity was then instrumented with an ultrasonic diamond-coated tip. Then the selected teeth were randomly and equally divided into two groups (n=25). In the experimental group (smear-), the teeth were irrigated with 0.17 g/L ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to remove smear layer on the root-end cavity wall; in the control group (smear+), the teeth were irrigated with physiological saline. Five teeth were extracted to evaluate the cleanliness of root end cavity walls under a videomicroscope, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation was also performed for the presence of smear layer and open tubule. For the additional 40 teeth, the root-end cavities were filled with MTA Plus. The quantitative apical leakage of each teeth was evaluated by measuring the concentration of leaked sucrose in apical reservoir on 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days, respectively. The samples were stored at 37 °C and 100% humidity for 56 days. Statistical analysis was done with ANOVA for repeated measurement design data.

RESULTS:

Removal of the smear layer did not cause significantly less apical leaked sucrose than that when the smear layer was left intact for 56 days (P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences at the concentration of leaked sucrose among different observation time points (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION:

It may be concluded that removing the smear layer may not be necessary in root-end cavities filled with MTA Plus.

PMID:
29930430
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 15;6:CD012583. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012583.pub2.

Dressings and topical agents for treating venous leg ulcers.

Author information

1
Division of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK, M13 9PL.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Venous leg ulcers are open skin wounds on the lower leg which can be slow to heal, and are both painful and costly. The point prevalence of open venous leg ulcers in the UK is about 3 cases per 10,000 people, and many people experience recurrent episodes of prolonged ulceration. First-line treatment for venous leg ulcers is compression therapy, but a wide range of dressings and topical treatments are also used. This diversity of treatments makes evidence-based decision-making challenging, and a clear and current overview of all the evidence is required. This review is a network meta-analysis (NMA) which assesses the probability of complete ulcer healing associated with alternative dressings and topical agents.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effects of (1) dressings and (2) topical agents for healing venous leg ulcers in any care setting and to rank treatments in order of effectiveness, with assessment of uncertainty and evidence quality.

SEARCH METHODS:

In March 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses, guidelines and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. We updated this search in March 2018; as a result several studies are awaiting classification.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We included published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled adults with venous leg ulcers and compared the effects of at least one of the following interventions with any other intervention in the treatment of venous leg ulcers: any dressing, or any topical agent applied directly to an open venous leg ulcer and left in situ. We excluded from this review dressings attached to external devices such as negative pressure wound therapies, skin grafts, growth factors and other biological agents, larval therapy and treatments such as laser, heat or ultrasound. Studies were required to report complete wound healing to be eligible.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two review authors independently performed study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment and data extraction. We conducted this NMA using frequentist meta-regression methods for the efficacy outcome; the probability of complete healing. We assumed that treatment effects were similar within dressings classes (e.g. hydrocolloid, foam). We present estimates of effect with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for individual treatments focusing on comparisons with widely used dressing classes, and we report ranking probabilities for each intervention (probability of being the best, second best, etc treatment). We assessed the certainty (quality) of the body of evidence using GRADE for each network comparison and for the network as whole.

MAIN RESULTS:

We included 78 RCTs (7014 participants) in this review. Of these, 59 studies (5156 participants, 25 different interventions) were included in the NMA; resulting in 40 direct contrasts which informed 300 mixed-treatment contrasts.The evidence for the network as a whole was of low certainty. This judgement was based on the sparsity of the network leading to imprecision and the general high risk of bias in the included studies. Sensitivity analyses also demonstrated instability in key aspects of the network and results are reported for the extended sensitivity analysis. Evidence for individual contrasts was mainly judged to be low or very low certainty.The uncertainty was perpetuated when the results were considered by ranking the treatments in terms of the probability that they were the most effective for ulcer healing, with many treatments having similar, low, probabilities of being the best treatment. The two most highly-ranked treatments both had more than 50% probability of being the best (sucralfate and silver dressings). However, the data for sucralfate was from one small study, which means that this finding should be interpreted with caution. When exploring the data for silver and sucralfate compared with widely-used dressing classes, there was some evidence that silver dressings may increase the probability of venous leg ulcer healing, compared with nonadherent dressings: RR 2.43, 95% CI 1.58 to 3.74 (moderate-certainty evidence in the context of a low-certainty network). For all other combinations of these five interventions it was unclear whether the intervention increased the probability of healing; in each case this was low- or very low-certainty evidence as a consequence of one or more of imprecision, risk of bias and inconsistency.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

More research is needed to determine whether particular dressings or topical agents improve the probability of healing of venous leg ulcers. However, the NMA is uninformative regarding which interventions might best be included in a large trial, largely because of the low certainty of the whole network and of individual comparisons.The results of this NMA focus exclusively on complete healing; whilst this is of key importance to people living with venous leg ulcers, clinicians may wish to take into account other patient-important outcomes and factors such as patient preference and cost.

PMID:
29906322
DOI:
10.1002/14651858.CD012583.pub2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.
J Food Sci. 2018 Jul;83(7):1839-1846. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14192. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Intragastric Gelation of Heated Soy Protein Isolate-Alginate Mixtures and Its Effect on Sucrose Release.

Author information

1
Food Science Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, 65211, U.S.A.

Abstract

The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of alginate on in vitro gastric digestion and sucrose release of soy protein isolate (SPI) in model beverages. Model beverages containing 5% w/w SPI, 0% to 0.20% w/w alginate, and 10% w/w sucrose were prepared by heating the mixtures at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 6.0 or 7.0. Characterizations of beverages included determination of zeta potential, particle size and rheological properties. Digestion patterns and sucrose release profiles were determined during 2 hr in vitro gastric digestion using SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis, respectively. Increasing alginate concentration led to increased negative surface charge, particle size, as well as viscosity and pseudoplastic behavior; however, no phase separation was observed. SPI beverages formed intragastric gel during in vitro gastric digestion when the formulations contained alginate or at pH 6.0 without alginate. Formation of the intragastric gel led to delayed protein digestion and release of sucrose. Higher resistance to digestion and a slower sucrose release rate were exhibited at increased alginate concentration, and to a lesser extent, at pH 6.0. This suggests that electrostatic interaction between SPI and alginate that occurred when the beverages were under gastric condition could be responsible for the intragastric gelation. These results could potentially lead to the formulation of SPI beverages with functionality to lower postprandial glycemic response.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION:

The results could be used to design beverages or semi solid food products with altered digestion properties and lowered or slower glucose release.

KEYWORDS:

alginate; beverages; intragastric gelation; soy protein isolate; sucrose release

PMID:
29905934
DOI:
10.1111/1750-3841.14192
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jun 26;115(26):6745-6750. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1801846115. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Species coexistence through simultaneous fluctuation-dependent mechanisms.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020; andrewletten@gmail.com.
2
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand.
3
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020.
4
Biodiversity and Conservation, Landcare Research, Lincoln 7608, New Zealand.

Abstract

Understanding the origins and maintenance of biodiversity remains one of biology's grand challenges. From theory and observational evidence, we know that variability in environmental conditions through time is likely critical to the coexistence of competing species. Nevertheless, experimental tests of fluctuation-driven coexistence are rare and have typically focused on just one of two potential mechanisms, the temporal storage effect, to the neglect of the theoretically equally plausible mechanism known as relative nonlinearity of competition. We combined experiments and simulations in a system of nectar yeasts to quantify the relative contribution of the two mechanisms to coexistence. Resource competition models parameterized from single-species assays predicted the outcomes of mixed-culture competition experiments with 83% accuracy. Model simulations revealed that both mechanisms have measurable effects on coexistence and that relative nonlinearity can be equal or greater in magnitude to the temporal storage effect. In addition, we show that their effect on coexistence can be both antagonistic and complementary. These results falsify the common assumption that relative nonlinearity is of negligible importance, and in doing so reveal the importance of testing coexistence mechanisms in combination.

KEYWORDS:

coexistence; environmental variability; relative nonlinearity; resource competition; storage effect

PMID:
29895689
PMCID:
PMC6042140
[Available on 2018-12-26]
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1801846115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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15.
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2018 Sep;49:98-104. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.05.002. Epub 2018 May 3.

Evaluation of the uptake, storage and cell effects of nano-iron in enterocyte-like cell models.

Author information

1
Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, C/ Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.
2
Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, C/ Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo, Spain. Electronic address: montesmaria@uniovi.es.

Abstract

The therapy with nanocompounds is widely used to treat Fe deficiency and an emerging trend to inhibit tumor growth. The present work aims to address the management of different FeONP, comparing sucrose covered FeONP and Fe nanoparticles in the form of the ferritin with non-particulated inorganic Fe (II) by enterocytes-like colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29). Iron uptake results revealed significantly higher Fe incorporation in the case of nanoparticulated Fe, first in the form of FeONP and second in the form of ferritin with respect to inorganic Fe (II). Furthermore, the intracellular Fe fractionation, conducted by size exclusion chromatography coupled on line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) showed a significant increase of the Fe-ferritin peak upon exposure of cells to the following compounds ferritin > FeONP > FeSO4. Such results point out that the sucrose coated FeONP released Fe into the cell cytosol that was used to replenish the existing cytosolic ferritin without inducing changes in the protein concentration. On the other hand, the increase of the Fe-ferritin peak in cells exposed to ferritin as iron source is due to a significant increase on the intracellular protein concentration, as proved by using an ICP-MS linked ferritin sandwich immune assay. Cell viability experiments conducted with concentrations up to 1000 μmol L-1 (as Fe) of each compound under scrutiny did not reveal significant differences among Fe species regarding global cellular toxicity. However, significant cell DNA damage was detected when treating the cells with FeONP (500 μmol L-1).

KEYWORDS:

Cytosol distribution; Fe nanocompounds; Ferritin; ICP-MS; Uptake

PMID:
29895379
DOI:
10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.05.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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16.
Food Funct. 2018 Jun 20;9(6):3509-3522. doi: 10.1039/c8fo00100f.

Bifidobacteria attenuate the development of metabolic disorders, with inter- and intra-species differences.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China. wanggang@jiangnan.edu.cn.

Abstract

Host gut microbiota dysbiosis occurs for multiple reasons and is often accompanied by chronic inflammation induced by a high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and related metabolic disorders. Intervention with probiotics is a novel strategy for amelioration of metabolic syndrome, which is believed to regulate the gut microbiota composition to some extent. We investigated the relationship amongst bifidobacteria treatment, HFHS diet-induced metabolic disorders and the gut microbiota composition. Seven strains of bifidobacteria from four species were individually administered to rats fed a HFHS diet for 12 weeks. Various bifidobacteria strains showed various effects on the recovery of metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis, and these effects seemed to be inter- or intra-species specific. Bifidobacterium longum, B. adolescentis and B. bifidum seemed to affect the blood glucose balance, whilst two strains of B. breve showed extremely different effects in this area. However, only one strain of B. longum and the B. adolescentis displayed significant regulation of blood lipid levels. The protective effects of bifidobacteria on the pancreas were strongly correlated with those on blood glucose. Furthermore, the influence of bifidobacteria on gut microbiota dysbiosis also showed a potential relationship with symptoms of metabolic disorders. Of these seven strains, B. adolescentis Z25 displayed an outstanding ability to alleviate metabolic syndrome, including glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, tissue damage and gut microbiota dysbiosis. This strain, coupled with other prebiotics and probiotics, could be used as a potential treatment approach for metabolic syndrome induced by a HFHS diet.

PMID:
29892745
DOI:
10.1039/c8fo00100f
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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17.
BMC Res Notes. 2018 Jun 8;11(1):363. doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3483-6.

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide decreases serum phosphorus level and fibroblast growth factor 23 and improves renal anemia in hemodialysis patients.

Author information

1
Department of Kidney Disease, Kawashima Hospital, 1-39 Kitasakoichiban-cho, Tokushima, 770-0011, Japan. h.shima@khg.or.jp.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Kawashima Hospital, 1-39 Kitasakoichiban-cho, Tokushima, 770-0011, Japan.
3
Department of Kidney Disease, Kawashima Hospital, 1-39 Kitasakoichiban-cho, Tokushima, 770-0011, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide, a novel iron-based phosphate-binder, has been shown to have beneficial effects in lowering serum phosphorus levels and improving renal anemia in clinical studies. Although an effect of this agent on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been reported in an animal study, there is little clinical data supporting this finding. This study aimed to evaluate the effect on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder, FGF23, renal anemia, iron-related parameters, adverse events of sucroferric oxyhydroxide in hemodialysis patients.

RESULTS:

Hemodialysis patients, receiving existing hyperphosphatemia drugs with insufficient benefit, were administered sucroferric oxyhydroxide with/without calcium carbonate for 16 weeks. Serum phosphorus level declined rapidly in Week 8 (p < 0.0001) and this decrease persisted until Week 16 (p < 0.0001). FGF23 decreased (p = 0.0412, Week 16), and hemoglobin increased (p < 0.0001, Week 16). Cumulative dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (p = 0.0122, Week 16), and intravenous iron (p = 0.0233, Week 12) decreased. All adverse reactions were mild, and diarrhea was the most frequently observed adverse reaction (16.7%). Therefore, hyperphosphatemia treatment with sucroferric oxyhydroxide may safely improve serum phosphorus level, renal anemia, FGF23, and other factors that affect the prognosis of hemodialysis patients.

KEYWORDS:

CKD-MBD; Dialysis; FGF23; Iron-based phosphate binder; Renal anemia

PMID:
29884226
PMCID:
PMC5994086
DOI:
10.1186/s13104-018-3483-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 4;6:CD008687. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008687.pub2.

Interventions for preventing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people admitted to intensive care units.

Author information

1
Evidence in Medicine / Cochrane Germany, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Straße 153, Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 79110.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to stress ulcers contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in people admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Stress ulceration refers to GI mucosal injury related to the stress of being critically ill. ICU patients with major bleeding as a result of stress ulceration might have mortality rates approaching 48.5% to 65%. However, the incidence of stress-induced GI bleeding in ICUs has decreased, and not all critically ill patients need prophylaxis. Stress ulcer prophylaxis can result in adverse events such as ventilator-associated pneumonia; therefore, it is necessary to evaluate strategies that safely decrease the incidence of GI bleeding.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effect and risk-benefit profile of interventions for preventing upper GI bleeding in people admitted to ICUs.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched the following databases up to 23 August 2017, using relevant search terms: MEDLINE; Embase; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature; and the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Disease Group Specialised Register, as published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 8). We searched the reference lists of all included studies and those from relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses to identify additional studies. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform search portal and contacted individual researchers working in this field, as well as organisations and pharmaceutical companies, to identify unpublished and ongoing studies.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs with participants of any age and gender admitted to ICUs for longer than 48 hours. We excluded studies in which participants were admitted to ICUs primarily for the management of GI bleeding and studies that compared different doses, routes, and regimens of one drug in the same class because we were not interested in intraclass effects of drugs.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

We used standard methodological procedures as recommended by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:

We identified 2292 unique records.We included 129 records reporting on 121 studies, including 12 ongoing studies and two studies awaiting classification.We judged the overall risk of bias of two studies as low. Selection bias was the most relevant risk of bias domain across the included studies, with 78 studies not clearly reporting the method used for random sequence generation. Reporting bias was the domain with least risk of bias, with 12 studies not reporting all outcomes that researchers intended to investigate.Any intervention versus placebo or no prophylaxisIn comparison with placebo, any intervention seems to have a beneficial effect on the occurrence of upper GI bleeding (risk ratio (RR) 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.57; moderate certainty of evidence). The use of any intervention reduced the risk of upper GI bleeding by 10% (95% CI -12.0% to -7%). The effect estimate of any intervention versus placebo or no prophylaxis with respect to the occurrence of nosocomial pneumonia, all-cause mortality in the ICU, duration of ICU stay, duration of intubation (all with low certainty of evidence), the number of participants requiring blood transfusions (moderate certainty of evidence), and the units of blood transfused was consistent with benefits and harms. None of the included studies explicitly reported on serious adverse events.Individual interventions versus placebo or no prophylaxisIn comparison with placebo or no prophylaxis, antacids, H2 receptor antagonists, and sucralfate were effective in preventing upper GI bleeding in ICU patients. Researchers found that with H2 receptor antagonists compared with placebo or no prophylaxis, 11% less developed upper GI bleeding (95% CI -0.16 to -0.06; RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.70; 24 studies; 2149 participants; moderate certainty of evidence). Of ICU patients taking antacids versus placebo or no prophylaxis, 9% less developed upper GI bleeding (95% CI -0.17 to -0.00; RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.99; eight studies; 774 participants; low certainty of evidence). Among ICU patients taking sucralfate versus placebo or no prophylaxis, 5% less had upper GI bleeding (95% CI -0.10 to -0.01; RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.88; seven studies; 598 participants; moderate certainty of evidence). The remaining interventions including proton pump inhibitors did not show a significant effect in preventing upper GI bleeding in ICU patients when compared with placebo or no prophylaxis.Regarding the occurrence of nosocomial pneumonia, the effects of H2 receptor antagonists (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.48; eight studies; 945 participants; low certainty of evidence) and of sucralfate (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.04; four studies; 450 participants; low certainty of evidence) were consistent with benefits and harms when compared with placebo or no prophylaxis. None of the studies comparing antacids versus placebo or no prophylaxis provided data regarding nosocomial pneumonia.H2 receptor antagonists versus proton pump inhibitorsH2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are most commonly used in practice to prevent upper GI bleeding in ICU patients. Proton pump inhibitors significantly more often prevented upper GI bleeding in ICU patients compared with H2 receptor antagonists (RR 2.90, 95% CI 1.83 to 4.58; 18 studies; 1636 participants; low certainty of evidence). When taking H2 receptor antagonists, 4.8% more patients might experience upper GI bleeding (95% CI 2.1% to 9%). Nosocomial pneumonia occurred in similar proportions of participants taking H2 receptor antagonists and participants taking proton pump inhibitors (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.35; 10 studies; 1256 participants; low certainty of evidence).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

This review shows that antacids, sucralfate, and H2 receptor antagonists might be more effective in preventing upper GI bleeding in ICU patients compared with placebo or no prophylaxis. The effect estimates of any treatment versus no prophylaxis on nosocomial pneumonia were consistent with benefits and harms. Evidence of low certainty suggests that proton pump inhibitors might be more effective than H2 receptor antagonists. Therefore, patient-relevant benefits and especially harms of H2 receptor antagonists compared with proton pump inhibitors need to be assessed by larger, high-quality RCTs to confirm the results of previously conducted, smaller, and older studies.

PMID:
29862492
DOI:
10.1002/14651858.CD008687.pub2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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19.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 May 28;19(6). pii: E1590. doi: 10.3390/ijms19061590.

Red to Far-Red Light Ratio Modulates Hormonal and Genetic Control of Axillary bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba').

Author information

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. yuancunquan@163.com.
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. sagheerhortii@gmail.com.
3
Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. chengtangren@163.com.
4
Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. wangjia8248@163.com.
5
Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. htpan2000@163.com.
6
Department of Ornamental Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. zhaolj5073@163.com.
7
Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. zqxbjfu@126.com.

Abstract

Single-flower cut Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba') holds a unique status in global floriculture industry. However, the extensive axillary bud outgrowth presents a major drawback. Shade is an environment cue that inhibits shoot branching. Present study was aimed at investigating the effect of ratio of red to far-red light (R:FR) in regulating the lateral bud outgrowth of Chrysanthemum and the detailed mechanism. Results showed that the fate of axillary buds at specific positions in stem exhibited difference in response to R:FR. Decreasing R:FR resulted in elevation of abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in axillary buds. Expression of ABA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and strigolactones (SL) -related metabolism and signal transduction genes was significantly changed in response to low R:FR. In addition, low R:FR caused the re-distribution of sucrose across the whole plant, driving more sucrose towards bottom buds. Our results indicate that low R:FR not always inhibits bud outgrowth, rather its influence depends on the bud position in the stem. ABA, SL and auxin pathways were involved in the process. Interestingly, sucrose also appears to be involved in the process which is necessary to pay attention in the further studies. The present study also lays the foundation for developing methods to regulate axillary bud outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

KEYWORDS:

R:FR; bud outgrowth; chrysanthemum; hormone; sucrose

PMID:
29843424
PMCID:
PMC6032274
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19061590
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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20.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2018 May;165(1):52-56. doi: 10.1007/s10517-018-4097-7. Epub 2018 May 24.

Composition of the Stabilizer and Conditions of Lyophilization for Preserving Infectious Activity of Influenza Virus.

Author information

1
Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia.
2
Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia. irina.v.kiseleva@gmail.com.

Abstract

For stabilization of vaccine preparations, they are lyophilized. The composition of the protective medium is an important parameter affecting the quality of the vaccine after drying. In view of the risk of spreading prion diseases, the use of media containing animal proteins is not recommended. In this study, protective media containing no animal proteins and lyophilization regimen were determined. The optimum lyophilization regimen consisted of three stages: freezing at -70°C, main stage at -35°C, and drying at 24°C. Protective medium containing 4% trehalose or protective medium with 10% sucrose and 5% soy peptone ensured highest stability of the lyophilized vaccine preparation in temperature range of 4-24°C. This can help to overcome possible break in the cold chain, which is important during transporting or storage of vaccine preparations.

KEYWORDS:

influenza viruses; live influenza vaccine; lyophilization; stabilizers

PMID:
29796807
DOI:
10.1007/s10517-018-4097-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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