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1.
Environ Pollut. 2019 Dec;255(Pt 2):113270. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113270. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Hyperaccumulation of Cd by Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell. from soil enriched with different Cd compounds, and impact of soil amendment with glutathione (GSH) on the hyperaccumulation efficiency.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environment Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China.
2
College of Biological Science & Engineering, Shaanxi Province Key Laboratory of Bio-resources, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001, China.
3
Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland.
4
Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environment Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address: shuhewei@iae.ac.cn.

Abstract

Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell. is known as Cd hyperaccumulator, however neither hyperaccumulation nature, nor affecting factors like the effect of Cd compounds entering soil from different sources, or of specific soil amendments, are not yet satisfactorily clarified. In the pot culture experiment, Cd accumulation by R. globosa from soils spiked with 3 and 9 mg Cd kg-1 in the form of Cd(NO3)2, CdCl2, CdBr2, CdI2, CdSO4, CdF2, Cd(OH)2, CdCO3, Cd3(PO4)2, CdS and effect of soil amendment with glutathione (GSH) were investigated. Accumulation capacity of R. globosa for Cd appeared to reflect its extractability in soils and was about two-fold bigger for high soluble compounds than for low-soluble ones. At that, the differences between the accumulation of Cd originating from high soluble compound group did not exceed 20%, while the differences within the low soluble compound group were insignificant (p < 0.05). The analysis of Cd uptake, uptake factor (UF), enrichment factor (EF) and translocation factor (TF) patterns revealed that Cd hyperaccumulating properties of R. globosa are based on the high water/nutrients demand and strong tolerance to Cd, although weak protection against Cd uptake by root system was also observed. Amendment with GSH enhanced Cd availability to plant and its uptake from soil, but exerted no effect on Cd translocation in plants. In the light of the results, the use of R. globosa for phytoremediation of moderately polluted agricultural lands as forecrop or aftercrop, and the GSH-assisted phytoremediation of highly polluted post-industrial sites seem to be viable options.

KEYWORDS:

Accumulation improvement; Cd chemical form impact; Cd hyperaccumulation; GSH; Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell.

PMID:
31563768
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113270
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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2.
Parasitology. 2018 Nov;145(13):1665-1699. doi: 10.1017/S0031182018000914. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Human fascioliasis infection sources, their diversity, incidence factors, analytical methods and prevention measures.

Author information

1
Departamento de Parasitología,Facultad de Farmacia,Universidad de Valencia,Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia,Spain.

Abstract

Human fascioliasis infection sources are analysed for the first time in front of the new worldwide scenario of this disease. These infection sources include foods, water and combinations of both. Ingestion of freshwater wild plants is the main source, with watercress and secondarily other vegetables involved. The problem of vegetables sold in uncontrolled urban markets is discussed. Distinction between infection sources by freshwater cultivated plants, terrestrial wild plants, and terrestrial cultivated plants is made. The risks by traditional local dishes made from sylvatic plants and raw liver ingestion are considered. Drinking of contaminated water, beverages and juices, ingestion of dishes and soups and washing of vegetables, fruits, tubercles and kitchen utensils with contaminated water are increasingly involved. Three methods to assess infection sources are noted: detection of metacercariae attached to plants or floating in freshwater, anamnesis in individual patients, and questionnaire surveys in endemic areas. The infectivity of metacercariae is reviewed both under field conditions and experimentally under the effects of physicochemical agents. Individual and general preventive measures appear to be more complicated than those considered in the past. The high diversity of infection sources and their heterogeneity in different countries underlie the large epidemiological heterogeneity of human fascioliasis throughout.

KEYWORDS:

Analytical methods; drinking water; human fascioliasis; incidence factors; infection sources; local dishes; metacercarial infectivity; plants; prevention measures; raw liver

PMID:
29991363
DOI:
10.1017/S0031182018000914
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
Planta. 2017 Nov;246(5):1029-1044. doi: 10.1007/s00425-017-2750-4. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Overexpression of biologically safe Rorippa indica defensin enhances aphid tolerance in Brassica juncea.

Author information

1
Division of Plant Biology, Centenary Campus, Bose Institute, Kolkata, 700054, India.
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Centenary Campus, Bose Institute, Kolkata, 700054, India.
3
Division of Plant Biology, Centenary Campus, Bose Institute, Kolkata, 700054, India. samir@jcbose.ac.in.

Abstract

Transgenic mustard plants ( Brassica juncea ) expressing non-allergenic and biologically safe RiD peptide show higher tolerance against Lipaphis erysimi. Rorippa indica defensin (RiD) has previously been reported as a novel insecticidal protein derived from a wild crucifer Rorippa indica. RiD was found to have an effective insecticidal property against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. In the present study, RiD was highly upregulated in R. indica during aphid infestation initiating a defense system mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), but not by salicylic acid (SA)/abscisic acid (ABA). RiD has also been assessed for biosafety according to the FAO/WHO guideline (allergenicity of genetically modified foods; Food And Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2001) and Codex Alimentarius Guideline (Guidelines for the design and implementation of national regulatory food safety assurance programme associated with the use of veterinary drugs in food producing animals. Codex Alimentarius Commission. GL, pp 71-2009, 2009). The purified protein was used to sensitize BALB/c mice and they showed normal histopathology of lung and no elevated IgE level in their sera. As the protein was found to be biologically safe and non-allergenic, it was used to develop transgenic Brassica juncea plants with enhanced aphid tolerance, which is one of the most important oilseed crops and is mostly affected by the devastating pest-L. erysimi. The transgene integration was monitored by Southern hybridization, and the positive B. juncea lines were further analyzed by Western blot, ELISA, immunohistolocalization assays and in planta insect bioassay. Transgenic plants expressing RiD conferred a higher level of tolerance against L. erysimi. All these results demonstrated that RiD is a novel, biologically safe, effective insecticidal agent and B. juncea plants expressing RiD are important components of integrated pest management.

KEYWORDS:

Allergenecity assessment; Biotic stress; Integrated pest management; Jasmonate regulatory gene; Mustard aphid; Transgenic mustard

PMID:
28770337
DOI:
10.1007/s00425-017-2750-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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4.
Chemosphere. 2016 Aug;156:76-87. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.105. Epub 2016 May 8.

Uranium accumulation in aquatic macrophytes in an uraniferous region: Relevance to natural attenuation.

Author information

1
MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517, Coimbra, Portugal.
2
MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517, Coimbra, Portugal; University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, School of Life Sciences and the Environment, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801, Vila Real, Portugal. Electronic address: pjcf@utad.pt.
3
MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517, Coimbra, Portugal; University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Earth Sciences, 3001-401, Coimbra, Portugal; Instituto de Geologia e Petróleo de Timor Leste, Timor Leste.
4
University of Calcutta, Department of Marine Science, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta, 700019, West Bengal, India.
5
Periyar University, Department of Biotechnology, Salem, 636 011, TN, India.

Abstract

Phytoremediation potential of uranium (U) was investigated by submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent native aquatic macrophytes inhabiting along the streams of Horta da Vilariça, a uraniferous geochemical region of NE Portugal. The work has been undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to relate the U concentrations in water-sediment-plant system; and (ii) to identify the potentialities of aquatic plants to remediate U-contaminated waters based on accumulation pattern. A total of 25 plant species culminating 233 samples was collected from 15 study points along with surface water and contiguous sediments. Concentrations of U showed wide range of variations both in waters (0.61-5.56 μg L(-1), mean value 1.98 μg L(-1)) and sediments (124-23,910 μg kg(-1), mean value 3929 μg kg(-1)) and this is also reflected in plant species examined. The plant species exhibited the ability to accumulate U several orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding water. Maximum U concentrations was recorded in the bryophyte Scorpiurium deflexifolium (49,639 μg kg(-1)) followed by Fontinalis antipyretica (35,771 μg kg(-1)), shoots of Rorippa sylvestris (33,837 μg kg(-1)), roots of Oenanthe crocata (17,807 μg kg(-1)) as well as in Nasturtium officinale (10,995 μg kg(-1)). Scorpiurium deflexifolium displayed a high bioconcentration factor (BF) of ∼2.5 × 10(4) (mean value). The species Fontinalis antipyretica, Nasturtium officinale (roots) and Rorippa sylvestris (shoots) exhibited the mean BFs of 1.7 × 10(4), 5 × 10(3) and 4.8 × 10(3) respectively. Maximum translocation factor (TF) was very much pronounced in the rooted perennial herb Rorippa sylvestris showing extreme ability to transport U for the shoots and seems to be promising candidate to be used as bioindicator species.

KEYWORDS:

Bioaccumulation; Horta da vilariça; Phytoextraction; Phytofiltration; Phytostabilization; Uranium biogeochemistry

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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5.
Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 22;6:19811. doi: 10.1038/srep19811.

Rorippa indica Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis Involving Frog Egg-like Bodies Efficiently Induced by the Synergy of Salt and Drought Stresses.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, 466001, People's Republic of China.
2
College of Life Science and Agronomy, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, 466001, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

Frog egg-like bodies (FELBs), novel somatic embryogenesis (SE) structures first observed in Solanum nigrum, were induced in Rorippa indica. NaCl-mediated salt and mannitol-mimicked drought stresses induced FELBs in R. indica, which is very different from the induction by plant growth regulators (PGRs) under low light condition that was used in S. nigrum FELB induction. It demonstrated that NaCl or mannitol supplements alone could induce FELBs in R. indica, but with low induction rates, while the synergy of NaCl and mannitol significantly increased the FELB induction rates. For the combination of 5.0 g/L mannitol and 10.0 g/L NaCl the highest FELB induction rate (100%) was achieved. It suggests that the synergy of drought and salt stresses can replace PGRs to induce FELBs in R. indica. On medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L gibberellic acid all the inoculated in vitro FELBs developed into multiple plantlets. Morphological and histological analyses confirmed the identity of FELBs induced in R. indica and revealed that FELBs originate from root cortex cells.

PMID:
26796345
PMCID:
PMC4726193
DOI:
10.1038/srep19811
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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6.
PLoS One. 2015 Nov 16;10(11):e0141247. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141247. eCollection 2015.

A Decrease in Ambient Temperature Induces Post-Mitotic Enlargement of Palisade Cells in North American Lake Cress.

Author information

1
Department of Bioresource and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto-City, Kyoto, Japan.
2
Department of Plant Biology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.
3
Department of Biology, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei-City, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

In order to maintain organs and structures at their appropriate sizes, multicellular organisms orchestrate cell proliferation and post-mitotic cell expansion during morphogenesis. Recent studies using Arabidopsis leaves have shown that compensation, which is defined as post-mitotic cell expansion induced by a decrease in the number of cells during lateral organ development, is one example of such orchestration. Some of the basic molecular mechanisms underlying compensation have been revealed by genetic and chimeric analyses. However, to date, compensation had been observed only in mutants, transgenics, and γ-ray-treated plants, and it was unclear whether it occurs in plants under natural conditions. Here, we illustrate that a shift in ambient temperature could induce compensation in Rorippa aquatica (Brassicaceae), a semi-aquatic plant found in North America. The results suggest that compensation is a universal phenomenon among angiosperms and that the mechanism underlying compensation is shared, in part, between Arabidopsis and R. aquatica.

PMID:
26569502
PMCID:
PMC4646676
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0141247
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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7.
Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10(12):e1091909. doi: 10.1080/15592324.2015.1091909.

Leaves may function as temperature sensors in the heterophylly of Rorippa aquatica (Brassicaceae).

Author information

1
a Department of Plant Biology ; University of California Davis; One Shields Avenue , Davis , CA USA.
2
b Department of Bioresource and Environmental Sciences ; Kyoto Sangyo University ; Kyoto , Japan.

Abstract

Many plants show heterophylly, which is variation in leaf form within a plant owing to environmental change. The molecular mechanisms underlying heterophylly have recently been investigated in several plant species. However, little is known about how plants exhibiting heterophylly sense environmental cues. Here, we used Rorippa aquatica (Brassicaceae), which shows heterophylly, to investigate whether a single leaf can sense and transit changes in ambient temperature. The morphology of newly developed leaves after single-leaf warming treatment was significantly different from that of mock-treated control leaves, suggesting that leaves are sensing organs that mediate the responses to changes in ambient temperature in R. aquatica.

KEYWORDS:

Brassicaceae; Rorippa aquatica; heterophylly; leaf morphology; leaves; phenotypic plasticity; single-leaf warming treatment

PMID:
26367499
PMCID:
PMC4854334
DOI:
10.1080/15592324.2015.1091909
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Feb;22(3):1999-2007. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3448-9. Epub 2014 Aug 29.

Effect of different nitrogenous nutrients on the cadmium hyperaccumulation efficiency of Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, People's Republic of China, shuhewei@iae.ac.cn.

Abstract

This experiment was used to explore whether the 11 nitrogenous nutrients affect the hyperaccumulation of Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell. to Cd. Pot culture experiments using soil spiked with Cd as CdCl2·2.5H2O and 11 nitrogen-containing chemicals were conducted to determine the efficiency of the accumulation of Cd by R. globosa. Application of all 11 nitrogenous nutrients significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced Cd accumulation by R. globosa (Turcz.) Thell. Two major modes of Cd accumulation were observed: (i) through increase of biomass yield without reduction of Cd uptake and (ii) through increase of Cd uptake efficiency in parallel with increase of biomass yield. Bicarbonate > phosphate > chloride compounds of NH4 enhanced the biomass yield to the greatest extent, while oxalate > nitrate > chloride > and bicarbonate caused a significant increase of Cd uptake by R. globosa. Competition between N and Cd translocation caused either significant reduction of Cd translocation factor or decrease of biomass yield. Of studied nutrients, ammonium bicarbonate NH4HCO3 and ammonium chloride NH4Cl exerted the best joint effect of these two processes on the efficiency of R. globosa as a Cd hyperaccumulator. Application of these chemicals caused increase of Cd concentrations in roots of R. globosa by 35.1 and 41.1 %, and in shoots by 13.9 and 56.4 %, while biomasses of roots increased by 5.8- and 3.8-fold and in shoots by 7.4-fold, and 6.4-fold, respectively, compared to the control. As a result, accumulated load (μg pot(-1)) of Cd in roots increased by 8.2- and 5.8-fold and in shoots by 8.6- and 10.6-fold in both pots. Consequently, chemicals (NH4HCO3 and NH4Cl) that enhanced both Cd enrichment and biomass yield had the greatest effect on the bioaccumulation capacity of R. globosa.

PMID:
25167813
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-014-3448-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 2;62(26):6118-29. doi: 10.1021/jf405538d. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Profiling of glucosinolates and flavonoids in Rorippa indica (Linn.) Hiern. (Cruciferae) by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS(n).

Author information

1
Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building-161, BARC-East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, United States.

Abstract

An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS(n) profiling method was used to identify the glucosinolates and flavonoids of Rorippa indica (Cruciferae), a wild vegetable and Chinese herb used to treat cough, diarrhea, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty-three glucosinolates, more than 40 flavonol glycosides, and 18 other phenolic and common organic compounds were identified. The glucosinolates and polyphenols were separated by UHPLC. High-resolution deprotonated molecules provided high accuracy mass values that were used to determine formulas and provide putative identification of the glucosinolates and flavonoids. The fragments from multistage mass spectrometry were used to elucidate the structures. The concentrations of the main components were based on UV peak areas and molar relative response factors with a single calibration standard. This study found this plant to be a rich source for glucosinolates, containing 24 new glucosinolates, including 14 glucosylated glucosinolates that were previously unidentified.

PMID:
24893216
PMCID:
PMC4082396
DOI:
10.1021/jf405538d
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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10.
J Chem Ecol. 2014 Apr;40(4):363-70. doi: 10.1007/s10886-014-0425-1. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Chemical defenses (glucosinolates) of native and invasive populations of the range expanding invasive plant Rorippa austriaca.

Author information

1
Plant Ecology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Abstract

Due to global warming, species are expanding their range to higher latitudes. Some range expanding plants have become invasive in their new range. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis and the Shifting Defense Hypothesis (SDH) predict altered selection on plant defenses in the introduced range of invasive plants due to changes in herbivore pressures and communities. Here, we investigated chemical defenses (glucosinolates) of five native and seven invasive populations of the Eurasian invasive range expanding plant, Rorippa austriaca. Further, we studied feeding preferences of a generalist and a specialist herbivore among the populations. We detected eight glucosinolates in the leaves of R. austriaca. 8-Methylsulfinyloctyl glucosinolate was the most abundant glucosinolate in all plants. There were no overall differences between native and invasive plants in concentrations of glucosinolates. However, concentrations among populations within each range differed significantly. Feeding preference between the populations by a generalist herbivore was negatively correlated with glucosinolate concentrations. Feeding by a specialist did not differ between the populations and was not correlated with glucosinolates. Possibly, local differences in herbivore communities within each range may explain the differences in concentrations of glucosinolates among populations. Little support for the predictions of the EICA hypothesis or the SDH was found for the glucosinolate defenses of the studied native and invasive R. austriaca populations.

PMID:
24752856
DOI:
10.1007/s10886-014-0425-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.
Plant Signal Behav. 2014;9(2):e27847. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Sciences; University of California; Davis, CA USA.
2
Experimental Plant Systematics; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics; University of Amsterdam; Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Plant Physiology; Bayreuth University; Bayreuth, Germany.
4
Plant Ecophysiology; Institute for Environmental Biology; Utrecht University; Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis.

KEYWORDS:

Arabidopsis; Rorippa; fermentation; flooding tolerance; hypoxia; root; submergence

PMID:
24525961
PMCID:
PMC4091424
DOI:
10.4161/psb.27847
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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12.
Plant Physiol. 2013 Nov;163(3):1277-92. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.222588. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

Author information

1
Plant Ecophysiology, Institute for Environmental Biology, Utrecht University 3584CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We studied plant survival, changes in carbohydrate and metabolite concentrations, and transcriptome responses to submergence of two species, Rorippa sylvestris and Rorippa amphibia. We exploited the close relationship between Rorippa species and the model species Arabidopsis by using Arabidopsis GeneChip microarrays for whole-genome transcript profiling of roots of young plants exposed to a 24-h submergence treatment or air. A probe mask was used based on hybridization of genomic DNA of both species to the arrays, so that weak probe signals due to Rorippa species/Arabidopsis mismatches were removed. Furthermore, we compared Rorippa species microarray results with those obtained for roots of submerged Arabidopsis plants. Both Rorippa species could tolerate deep submergence, with R. sylvestris surviving much longer than R. amphibia. Submergence resulted in the induction of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation and the repression of many energy-consuming pathways, similar to the low-oxygen and submergence response of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). The qualitative responses of both Rorippa species to submergence appeared roughly similar but differed quantitatively. Notably, glycolysis and fermentation genes and a gene encoding sucrose synthase were more strongly induced in the less tolerant R. amphibia than in R. sylvestris. A comparison with Arabidopsis microarray studies on submerged roots revealed some interesting differences and potential tolerance-related genes in Rorippa species.

PMID:
24077074
PMCID:
PMC3813650
DOI:
10.1104/pp.113.222588
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.
PLoS One. 2013 Sep 9;8(9):e73632. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073632. eCollection 2013.

Identification of genes involved in wild crucifer Rorippa indica resistance response on mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi challenge.

Author information

1
Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Centenary Campus, Kolkata, India.

Abstract

Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach is a perpetual annual threat in the cultivation of rapeseed- mustard (Brassica spp.) crop in tropical and sub-tropical climate. Cultivated Brassica germplasm has failed so far to provide any source of resistance. Wild germplasm is a potential source of resistance against many threatening herbivores. On wild germplasm screening, we noted that the wild crucifer Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern confers resistance against L. erysimi. In the present study L. erysimi challenged transcriptome of R. indica was compared to un-infested R. indica sample to get a molecular insight about the aphid resistance mechanism and identify the candidate defense response genes. Cloning, sequencing and in silico sequence analysis of complimentary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism identified 116 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments revealed thirty candidates which are from different functional categories including redox regulation, signalling, photosynthesis, structure, metabolism, defense response as well as a few of unknown function. Twenty four identifications were then studied by quantitative real time RT PCR analysis at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hour time point post infestation to understand the early-to-late defense response through their relative gene expression profiles. Seventeen fragments showed significant up or down regulation at p<0.05 level. The response was influenced by different phytohormonal signalling pathways simultaneously. The candidate defense response expressed sequence tags specifically for the resistance genes identified in this study have implication in building desired mustard aphid resistance in susceptible rapeseed-mustard plants in future. This is the first molecular report on crucifer defense response against mustard aphid L. erysimi.

PMID:
24040008
PMCID:
PMC3767759
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0073632
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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14.
Bioresour Technol. 2012 Aug;118:455-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.05.049. Epub 2012 May 18.

Tolerant mechanisms of Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell. hyperaccumulating Cd explored from root morphology.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environment Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, PR China. shuhewei@yahoo.com.cn

Abstract

Hoagland solution was used to determine the root morphology properties of Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell. and Rorippa palustris (Leyss.) Bess. Under the conditions of Cd spiked at 2.5 and 5 mg kg(-1), R. globosa showed all hyperaccumulative characteristics and was a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In contrast, R. palustris was a non-hyperaccumulator. The total root lengths, total root surface areas and total root volumes of R. globosa were not significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to the control when 2.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) of Cd added. However, these 3 indexes of R. palustris were all significantly decreased (p<0.05) when 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) Cd added compared its control. The average root diameters of R. palustris and R. globosa were not affected by Cd. These results showed that root morphology might be a factor of plant with strong tolerance to Cd.

PMID:
22717563
DOI:
10.1016/j.biortech.2012.05.049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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15.
Ann Bot. 2012 Jun;109(7):1263-76. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcs059. Epub 2012 Apr 11.

Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid.

Author information

1
Experimental Plant Systematics, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.akman@uva.nl

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well as F(1) hybrid Rorippa × anceps were analysed to unravel mechanisms underlying submergence tolerance.

METHODS:

In the first submergence experiment (lasting 20 d) we analysed biomass, stem elongation and carbohydrate content. In the second submergence experiment (lasting 3 months) we analysed survival and the effect of re-establishment of air contact on biomass and carbohydrate content. In a separate experiment we analysed expression of two carbohydrate catabolism genes, ADH1 and SUS1, upon re-establishment of air contact following submergence.

KEY RESULTS:

All plants had low mortality even after 3 months of submergence. Rorippa sylvestris was characterized by 100 % survival and higher carbohydrate levels coupled with lower ADH1 gene expression as well as reduced growth compared with R. amphibia. Rorippa amphibia and the hybrid elongated their stems but this did not pay-off in higher survival when plants remained submerged. Only R. amphibia and the hybrid benefited in terms of increased biomass and carbohydrate accumulation upon re-establishing air contact.

CONCLUSIONS:

Results demonstrate contrasting 'escape' and 'quiescence' strategies between Rorippa species. Being a close relative of arabidopsis, Rorippa is an excellent model for future studies on the molecular mechanism(s) controlling these strategies.

PMID:
22499857
PMCID:
PMC3359918
DOI:
10.1093/aob/mcs059
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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16.
Genetics. 2008 Aug;179(4):2113-23. doi: 10.1534/genetics.107.085027. Epub 2008 Aug 9.

Segregation models for disomic, tetrasomic and intermediate inheritance in tetraploids: a general procedure applied to Rorippa (yellow cress) microsatellite data.

Author information

1
Experimental Plant Systematics, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.stift@bio.gla.ac.uk

Abstract

Tetraploid inheritance has two extremes: disomic in allotetraploids and tetrasomic in autotetraploids. The possibility of mixed, or intermediate, inheritance models has generally been neglected. These could well apply to newly formed hybrids or to diploidizing (auto)tetraploids. We present a simple likelihood-based approach that is able to incorporate disomic, tetrasomic, and intermediate inheritance models and estimates the double-reduction rate. Our model shows that inheritance of microsatellite markers in natural tetraploids of Rorippa amphibia and R. sylvestris is tetrasomic, confirming their autotetraploid origin. However, in F(1) hybrids inheritance was intermediate to disomic and tetrasomic inheritance. Apparently, in meiosis, chromosomes paired preferentially with the homolog from the same parental species, but not strictly so. Detected double-reduction rates were low. We tested the general applicability of our model, using published segregation data. In two cases, an intermediate inheritance model gave a better fit to the data than the tetrasomic model advocated by the authors. The existence of inheritance intermediate to disomic and tetrasomic has important implications for linkage mapping and population genetics and hence breeding programs of tetraploids. Methods that have been developed for either disomic or tetrasomic tetraploids may not be generally applicable, particularly in systems where hybridization is common.

PMID:
18689891
PMCID:
PMC2516083
DOI:
10.1534/genetics.107.085027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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17.
New Phytol. 2008;180(1):229-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02547.x.

Different flooding responses in Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, and their modes of expression in F1 hybrids.

Author information

1
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Experimental Plant Systematics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94062, 1090 GB Amsterdam, the Netherlands. m.stift@bio.gla.ac.uk

Abstract

The river floodplain species Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris, and their hybrid Rorippa x anceps were studied here, with the aim of identifying potential species differences with respect to flooding tolerance, and of assessing their expression in F1 hybrids. Parents and their F1 hybrids were subjected to three flooding treatments mimicking natural conditions, and growth-related and leaf morphological traits were compared. In contrast to R. sylvestris, R. amphibia responded to waterlogging by forming specialized roots, and its growth was not reduced. These traits were dominantly expressed in hybrids. Both species and the hybrids established shoot growth over 2 wk of complete submergence. Only in R. sylvestris was this not at the expense of root biomass, suggesting that R. sylvestris can photosynthesize underwater. Rorippa sylvestris also showed a hyponastic response. Hybrids were intermediate to the parents in this respect. This study shows that phenotypic expression of parental traits in F1 hybrids is mostly additive, but can also be dominant. This suggests that a large overlap in habitat use of parents and hybrids is likely. If such an overlap occurs, the main evolutionary consequences of hybridization in Rorippa will be the introgression of genes, as the hybrids are fully fertile.

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18.
Environ Monit Assess. 2009 May;152(1-4):299-307. doi: 10.1007/s10661-008-0316-4. Epub 2008 May 16.

Hyperaccumulative property comparison of 24 weed species to heavy metals using a pot culture experiment.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, People's Republic of China. shuhewei@yahoo.com.cn

Abstract

The screening of hyperaccumulators is still very much needed for phytoremediation. With properties such as strong tolerance to adverse environment, fast growing and highly reproductive rate, weed species may be an ideal plant for phytoremediation. The objectives of this study were to examine the tolerance and hyperaccumulative characteristics of 24 species in 9 families to Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn by using the outdoor pot-culture experiment. In the screening experiment, only Conyza canadensis and Rorippa globosa displayed Cd-hyperaccumulative characteristics. In a further concentration gradient experiment, C. canadensis was affirmed that it is not a Cd hyperaccumulator. Only R. globosa, indicated all Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics, especially Cd concentration in its stems and leaves were higher than 100 mg/kg, the minimum Cd concentration what a Cd-hyperaccumulator should accumulate. Thus, R. globosa was further validated as a Cd-hyperaccumulator.

PMID:
18483772
DOI:
10.1007/s10661-008-0316-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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19.
Mol Ecol. 2007 Sep;16(17):3544-53.

Genetic diversity in diploid vs. tetraploid Rorippa amphibia (Brassicaceae).

Author information

1
Universiteit van Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Experimental Plant Systematics, PO Box 94062, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. luttik@nioz.nl

Abstract

The frequency of polyploidy increases with latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in deglaciated, recently colonized areas. The cause or causes of this pattern are largely unknown, but a greater genetic diversity of individual polyploid plants due to a doubled genome and/or a hybrid origin is seen as a likely factor underlying selective advantages related to life in extreme climates and/or colonization ability. A history of colonization in itself, as well as a recent origin, and possibly a limited number of polyploidization events would all predict less genetic diversity in polyploids than in diploids. The null hypothesis of higher gene diversity in polyploids has to date hardly been quantified and is here tested in self-incompatible Rorippa amphibia (Brassicaceae). The species occurs in diploid and tetraploid forms and displays clear geographical polyploidy in Europe. On the basis of eight microsatellite loci it can be concluded that the level of gene diversity is higher in tetraploids than in diploids, to an extent that is expected under neutral evolution when taking into account the larger effective population size in the doubled cytotype. There is thus no evidence for reduced genetic diversity in the tetraploids. The evidence presented here may mean that the tetraploids' origin is not recent, has not been affected by bottlenecks and/or that tetraploids were formed multiple times while an effect of introgression may also play a role.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2007 Jun;28(6):1355-60.

[Growth responses of Rorippa globosa and its accumulation characteristics of Cd and as under the Cd-As combined pollution].

[Article in Chinese]

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.

Abstract

Rorippa globosa has been identified as a new Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species. In the present study, growth responses of Rorippa globosa and its accumulation characteristics of Cd and As were examined under the condition of Cd-As combined pollution. The results showed that Cd and As had an antagonistic effect on enhancing the growth of the plants and Cd uptake and accumulation under the low concentration Cd and As treatments. When Cd and As concentrations were 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, the highest height of the plants and the dry weight of shoots were up to 35.9 cm and 2.2 g/pot, respectively; and the accumulation of Cd in the leaves under the combined pollution was higher than that at the same level under single Cd pollution. However, there were synergic adverse effects on plant growth and Cd uptake under the high concentration Cd and As combined pollution. Meanwhile the accumulation of As in the roots was higher than that in the shoots, the translocation factor < or = 0.3 and the bioaccumulation factor < or = 0.6, which showed that Rorippa globosa had an excluding effect on As uptake. These results confirmed that Rorippa globosa had the strong tolerance ability to the Cd-As combined pollution, and the potential applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soil by Cd and As.

PMID:
17674749
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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