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1.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Jul 15;114:700-709. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.082. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

Native and modified Sorghum starches as wall materials in microencapsulation of nutmeg oleoresin.

Author information

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address: tahira.mohsin@uok.edu.pk.
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi, Pakistan.

Abstract

The effect of the partial or total substitution of gum arabic (GA) with native (NA), octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and succinylated (SUC) sorghum starches on microencapsulation of nutmeg oleoresin was studied using spray drying technique. The oleoresin with 10% load is emulsified by using three different combinations of GA along with native and modified sorghum starches. The proportion of GA and sorghum starch was fixed at 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75. Most of the feed emulsions were having good emulsion stability and lower emulsion viscosity. The highest oil retention of 95% with 84.07% encapsulation efficiency was achieved when GA: NA starch was used in the fraction of 25:75. The highest encapsulation efficiency of 95.38% was obtained by GA: OSA in a ratio of 75:25. Results obtained suggested that both NA and OSA starches could be considered as a good alternative to gum arabic for microencapsulation.

KEYWORDS:

Microencapsulation; Nutmeg oleoresin; Sorghum starch; Spray drying

PMID:
29559313
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.082
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
2.
J Nat Med. 2018 Mar;72(2):464-473. doi: 10.1007/s11418-017-1170-x. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Degranulation inhibitors from the arils of Myristica fragrans in antigen-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia cells.

Author information

1
Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Institute, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka, 577-8502, Japan. morikawa@kindai.ac.jp.
2
Antiaging Center, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka, 577-8502, Japan. morikawa@kindai.ac.jp.
3
Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Institute, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka, 577-8502, Japan.
4
Antiaging Center, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka, 577-8502, Japan.
5
Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, 607-8412, Japan.
6
Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, 607-8412, Japan. matsuda@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp.

Abstract

A methanol extract of mace, the aril of Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), was found to inhibit the release of β-hexosaminidase, a marker of antigen-IgE-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3, IC50 = 45.7 μg/ml). From the extract, three new 8-O-4' type neolignans, maceneolignans I-K (1-3), were isolated, and the stereostructures of 1-3 were elucidated based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Among the isolates, maceneolignans A (5), D (6), and H (8), (-)-(8R)-∆8'-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (13), (-)-(8R)-∆8'-3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (14), (-)-erythro-(7R,8S)-∆8'-7-acetoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (17), (+)-licarin A (20), nectandrin B (24), verrucosin (25), and malabaricone C (29) were investigated as possible degranulation inhibitors (IC50 = 20.7-63.7 μM). These inhibitory activities were more potent than those of the antiallergic agents tranilast (282 μM) and ketotifen fumalate (158 μM). Compounds 5, 25, and 29 also inhibited antigen-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α production (IC50 = 39.5-51.2 μM), an important process in the late phase of type I allergic reactions.

KEYWORDS:

Degranulation inhibitor; Maceneolignan; Myristica fragrans; Neolignan; Type I allergy

PMID:
29336005
DOI:
10.1007/s11418-017-1170-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Jan 15;18(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2084-1.

In vitro antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity of crude extract, fractions and 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans Houtt against MDR Gram-negative enteric bacteria.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon.
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey.
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CCS, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Brazil.
5
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon. kuetevictor@yahoo.fr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nutmeg is the seed kernel inside the fruit of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae). It possesses various pharmacological activities but is used in Cameroon only for its flavor in making cakes. The present study thus aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiotic modifying activities of crude seed kernel methanol extract (MFS), fractions (MFSa-e) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans against a panel of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria.

METHODS:

The modified rapid p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT) colorimetric assay was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) on the tested bacteria, as well as those of antibiotics in association with the extract and/or isolated compound. Column chromatography was used for the fractionation and purification of the seed kernel extract whilst the chemical structures of compounds were determined using spectroscopic techniques.

RESULTS:

Phytochemical investigations lead to the isolation of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from the fraction MFSb. The crude extract showed antibacterial activity with MICs ranging from 32 to 1024 μg/mL on the majority of the 29 tested Gram-negative bacterial strains. Fraction MFSb inhibited the growth of 100% (29/29) of the tested bacterial strains, as well as the compound 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (12/12) with a MIC values ranging from 32 to 1024 μg/mL, and 4 to 128 μg/mL respectively. The lowest MIC value (4 μg/mL) was recorded with 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone against Providencia stuartii ATCC299645 as well as the best MBC value (16 μg/mL) against the same strain. In the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine-β-Naphthylamide (PAßN), an efflux pumps inhibitor, the activity of the extract increased on 73.33% (11/15) meanwhile that of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone increased on 100% tested bacteria. The compound 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone potentiated the activity of antibiotics in the majority of the tested bacterial strains.

CONCLUSION:

The results of the present work provide additional information on the use of nutmeg and it major antibacterial component, 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone, as a potential drug in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

KEYWORDS:

3′,4′,7-trihydroxyflavone; Antibiotic modifying activity; Cameroon; Gram-negative bacteria; Multidrug-resistance; Myristica fragrans

PMID:
29334931
PMCID:
PMC5769358
DOI:
10.1186/s12906-018-2084-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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4.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Jan;111:374-384. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.11.049. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

Author information

1
Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic.
2
Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic. Electronic address: moulin@email.cz.

Abstract

Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways.

KEYWORDS:

Essential oils; Food-drug interactions; P450 induction; Xenobiotic metabolism

PMID:
29191726
DOI:
10.1016/j.fct.2017.11.049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2017 May;42(9):1782-1786. doi: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.2017.0071.

[Determination and pharmacokinetics of main components for Psoralea corylifolia-Myristica fragrants drug pair by using UPLC-MS/MS].

[Article in Chinese]

Author information

1
The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Grade 3 Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation, State Administration of Traditioanal Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230031, China.
2
College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, China.

Abstract

To conduct multiple-reaction monitoring(MRM) quantitative analysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method(UPLC-MS/MS), determine the concentrations of psoralen, isopsoralen, bakuchiol and dehydrodiisoeugenol in plasma under positive iron mode with chloramghenicol as internal standard, and investigate the pharmacokinetics process of the main components before and after oral administration of drug pair Psoralea corylifolia -Myristica fragrants. Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into three group(A, B, C) and received P. corylifolia extract, P. corylifolia-M. fragrants extract, and M. fragrants extract respectively by intragastric administration. The plasma samples were collected at different time points. In the plasma samples, psoralen, isopsoralen, bakuchiol and dehydrodiisoeugenol showed good linear relationship within concentration rages of 0.098 125 to 39.25, 0.084 37 to 33.75, 0.046 875 to 18.75, and 0.11 to 2.2 mg•L⁻¹ respectively. The precision and stability results showed that the determination method of plasma concentration for such compositions was stable and reliable. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained by DAS 2.0 showed varying differences before and after compatibility. According to the experimental results, the compatibility of P. corylifolia and M. fragrants can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of main components, expand their distribution and accelerate their metabolism and elimination in vivo.

KEYWORDS:

Myristica fragrants ; Psoralea corylifolia ; UPLC-MS/MS ; compatibility ; pharmacokinetics

PMID:
29082707
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
6.
Food Chem. 2017 Dec 15;237:75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.101. Epub 2017 May 19.

Hard cap espresso extraction and liquid chromatography determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices.

Author information

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner St., 46100 Burjassot, Spain.
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner St., 46100 Burjassot, Spain. Electronic address: Sergio.armenta@uv.es.

Abstract

A new analytical procedure, based on liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection, has been proposed for the determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices after hard cap espresso extraction. This novel extraction system has been tested for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from fresh chilli and sweet pepper, piperine from ground pepper, curcumin from turmeric and curry, and myristicin from nutmeg. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by using acetonitrile:water and ethanol:water mixtures. The proposed method allows the extraction of samples with 100mL of 60% (v/v) ethanol in water. The obtained limits of quantification for the proposed procedure ranged from 0.07 to 0.30mgg-1 and results were statistically comparable with those obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction. Hard cap espresso machines offer a fast, effective and quantitative tool for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food samples with an extraction time lower than 30s, using a global available and low cost equipment.

KEYWORDS:

Capsaicin; Curcumin; Hard cap espresso extraction; Myristicin; Piperine; Ultrasound-assisted extraction

PMID:
28764063
DOI:
10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.101
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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7.
J Appl Toxicol. 2017 Oct;37(10):1254-1264. doi: 10.1002/jat.3491. Epub 2017 May 29.

Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements.

Author information

1
Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708, WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2
Aqaba international laboratories/BENHAYYAN, ASEZA, Aqaba, 77110, Jordan.
3
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708, WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312 μg kg-1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631 μg kg-1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295 μg kg-1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2 weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern.

KEYWORDS:

alkenylbenzenes; combined risk assessment; margin of exposure (MOE); nutmeg-based PFS; plant food supplement (PFS); toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)

PMID:
28556924
DOI:
10.1002/jat.3491
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 Jul 15;27(14):3060-3064. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.05.055. Epub 2017 May 18.

Sialidase inhibitory activity of diarylnonanoid and neolignan compounds extracted from the seeds of Myristica fragrans.

Author information

1
Natural Product Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea.
2
Natural Product Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea; College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764, Republic of Korea.
3
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764, Republic of Korea.
4
Natural Product Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ybryu@kribb.re.kr.
5
Natural Product Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: wslee@kribb.re.kr.

Abstract

Sialidases are key virulence factors that remove sialic acid from host cell surface glycans, thus unmasking receptors to facilitate bacterial adherence and colonization. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of novel inhibitors of the Streptococcus pneumoniae sialidases NanA, NanB, and NanC from Myristica fragrans seeds. Of the isolated compounds (1-12), malabaricone C showed the most pneumococcal sialidases inhibition (IC50 of 0.3μM for NanA, 3.6μM for NanB, and 2.9μM for NanC). These results suggested that malabaricone C and neolignans could be potential agents for combating S. pneumoniae infection agents.

KEYWORDS:

Malabaricone C; Myristica fragrans; NanA; NanB; Sialidase

PMID:
28551100
DOI:
10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.05.055
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jun;24(17):14758-14769. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9065-7. Epub 2017 May 3.

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Myristica fragrans seed (nutmeg) extract and its antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 235, Harar, Ethiopia. nbsenthilkumar@gmail.com.
2
Department of Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu, 637408, India. nbsenthilkumar@gmail.com.
3
Department of Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu, 637408, India.
4
PG & Research Department of Biotechnology, Sengunthar Arts and Science College, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, 637205, India.
5
Department of Marine Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620024, India.
6
Department of Biotechnology, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, 796004, India.
7
Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, 796004, India.

Abstract

Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due its effective mode of action, eco-friendly preparation methodology, and less cytotoxicity. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous seed extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were characterized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of bioactive components acts as effective in reducing and capping agents for converting AgNO3 to AgNPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 420 nm, which is the characteristic peak of AgNPs. The functional molecules present in the M. fragrans seed extract and their interaction with the AgNPs were identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver nanoparticle and diameter was calculated using Scherrer's equation. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image showed spherical shaped particles with an average size of 25 nm. The scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) according to agar well diffusion, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), and IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%). The results confirm that bacterial growth was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Further, the cytotoxic effect of biosynthesized AgNPs on rat spleenocytes was analyzed. Thus, it is suggested that the nutmeg-biosynthesized AgNPs could be a lead drug and used effectively to control the MDR S. Typhi, thereby reducing public health issues and environmental pollution.

KEYWORDS:

Antibacterial activity; Biosynthesis; Environmental pollution; GC–MS; MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi; Nutmeg; Public health; Silver nanoparticles

PMID:
28470497
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-017-9065-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.
J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1458-1468. doi: 10.5740/jaoacint.16-0430. Epub 2017 Apr 22.

Determination of Ochratoxin A in Black and White Pepper, Nutmeg, Spice Mix, Cocoa, and Drinking Chocolate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection: Collaborative Study.

Author information

1
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate F - Health, Consumers, and Reference Materials, Retieseweg 111, 2400 Geel, Belgium.
2
FoodLife International Ltd, ODTU Teknokent, 06800 Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract

A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 25 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 12 European Union (EU) Member States, together with Turkey and Macedonia. Mean recoveries ranged from 71 to 85% for spices and from 85 to 88% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDr values ranged from 5.6 to 16.7% for spices and from 4.5 to 18.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDR values ranged from 9.5 to 22.6% for spices and from 13.7 to 30.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The resulting Horwitz ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1 for spices and from 0.6 to 1.4 for cocoa and drinking chocolate according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.

PMID:
28432760
DOI:
10.5740/jaoacint.16-0430
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2017 Mar 28;12:2427-2441. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S125302. eCollection 2017.

Enhancement of physicochemical properties of nanocolloidal carrier loaded with cyclosporine for topical treatment of psoriasis: in vitro diffusion and in vivo hydrating action.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science.
2
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Abstract

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease that cannot be cured. It can however be controlled by various forms of treatment, including topical, systemic agents, and phototherapy. Topical treatment is the first-line treatment and favored by most physicians, as this form of therapy has more patient compliance. Introducing a nanoemulsion for transporting cyclosporine as an anti-inflammatory drug to an itchy site of skin disease would enhance the effectiveness of topical treatment for psoriasis. The addition of nutmeg and virgin coconut-oil mixture, with their unique properties, could improve cyclosporine loading and solubility. A high-shear homogenizer was used in formulating a cyclosporine-loaded nanoemulsion. A D-optimal mixture experimental design was used in the optimization of nanoemulsion compositions, in order to understand the relationships behind the effect of independent variables (oil, surfactant, xanthan gum, and water content) on physicochemical response (particle size and polydispersity index) and rheological response (viscosity and k-value). Investigation of these variables suggests two optimized formulations with specific oil (15% and 20%), surfactant (15%), xanthan gum (0.75%), and water content (67.55% and 62.55%), which possessed intended responses and good stability against separation over 3 months' storage at different temperatures. Optimized nanoemulsions of pH 4.5 were further studied with all types of stability analysis: physical stability, coalescence-rate analysis, Ostwald ripening, and freeze-thaw cycles. In vitro release proved the efficacy of nanosize emulsions in carrying cyclosporine across rat skin and a synthetic membrane that best fit the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. In vivo skin analysis towards healthy volunteers showed a significant improvement in the stratum corneum in skin hydration.

KEYWORDS:

Franz diffusion cell; Ostwald ripening; cyclosporine; mixture experimental design; nanoemulsion; psoriasis; transepidermal water loss

PMID:
28405165
PMCID:
PMC5378462
DOI:
10.2147/IJN.S125302
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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12.
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2017 Jan;23(1):20-24. doi: 10.1080/10773525.2017.1280948. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Occupational exposure and respiratory health problems among nutmeg production workers in Grenada, the Caribbean.

Author information

1
a Center for Global Health, College of Health Sciences , Old Dominion University , Norfolk , VA , USA.
2
b Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine , St. George's University , St. George , Grenada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The nutmeg industry is a major contributor to the Grenadian economy. However, workers in the industry face many environmental and occupational health risks.

OBJECTIVES:

The goal of this study was to investigate respiratory health problems and possible related occupational exposures among nutmeg production workers.

METHODS:

A questionnaire, spirometry and allergen skin-prick test was given to 92 nutmeg workers. Samples for measurement of airborne dust, mold, and phosphine were also collected from work environments.

RESULTS:

Approximately half of the workers with lower respiratory symptoms such as dry cough (49.4%) and shortness of breath (42.9%) reported that their symptoms were work related. Spirometry results showed that 18.8% of workers had obstruction. Area geometric mean (GM) inhalable dust concentrations, GM personal concentrations, and total mold spores during work activities were found to be high.

CONCLUSIONS:

High prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in this facility was consistent with measured levels of dust and mold, and was widespread over all work areas.

KEYWORDS:

Nutmeg; caribbean; mace; mold exposure; respiratory health; spice industry; spirometry

PMID:
28249553
PMCID:
PMC6060845
DOI:
10.1080/10773525.2017.1280948
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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13.
J Med Food. 2016 Nov;19(11):1065-1073.

Procoagulant Substance and Mechanism of Myristica fragrans.

Author information

1
1 Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Pharmaceutical College, Henan University , Kaifeng, China .
2
2 Kaifeng Key Laboratory of Functional Components in Health Food , Kaifeng, China .

Abstract

The effect and mechanisms of Myristica fragrans on blood clotting were evaluated by evaluating blood coagulation time and the fibrinolytic system. The compounds 2 and 5 were isolated from the herbal extract and their activities were assessed for the first time. None of the tested compounds had fibrinolytic activity, but could inhibit the fibrinolytic activity of urokinase. Compound 2 showed the highest inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.747 mg·mL-1) followed by compounds 4 (IC50 = 1.818 mg·mL-1) and 1 (IC50 = 2.407 mg·mL-1), which were higher than that of the compound in Danshen drug tablets (IC50 = 6.577 mg·mL-1) used in China. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values 21.76 ± 0.59 and 21.31 ± 0.00 μg·mL-1, respectively. These results demonstrated that the compounds are promising candidates as procoagulant and antidiabetic agents.

KEYWORDS:

Myristica fragrans; coagulation activity; α-glucosidase inhibitory activity

PMID:
27845864
DOI:
10.1089/jmf.2016.3700
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
14.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. 2017 Mar;10(1):5-14. doi: 10.1080/19393210.2016.1210244. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Mycotoxins, pesticides and toxic metals in commercial spices and herbs.

Author information

1
a Institute of Food Safety , Animal Health and Environment "BIOR" , Riga , Latvia.

Abstract

A total of 300 samples representing six condiments (black pepper, basil, oregano, nutmeg, paprika, and thyme) were analysed for 11 mycotoxins, 134 pesticides and 4 heavy metals by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mycotoxins were detected in 4%, 10% and 30% of all nutmeg, basil and thyme samples, respectively. The residues of 24 pesticides were detected in 59% of the analysed condiments. The maximum residue levels of pesticides were exceeded in 10% of oregano and 46% of thyme samples. A risk assessment of heavy metals was performed, indicating daily intake levels far below the tolerable intake levels.

KEYWORDS:

HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS; ICP-MS; Spices; herbs; maximum residue limits; mycotoxins; pesticide residues; regression analysis; toxic metals

PMID:
27397646
DOI:
10.1080/19393210.2016.1210244
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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15.
J Prev Med Hyg. 2016;57(2):E102-9.

Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

Author information

1
Health Sciences Department, Applied Microbiology Laboratory, University of Florence, Italy;
2
Analytical Laboratory, Drogheria & Alimentari Spa, S. Piero a Sieve e Scarperia, Florence, Italy.

Abstract

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2).

KEYWORDS:

Aflatoxins; Moulds; Spices

PMID:
27582627
PMCID:
PMC4996038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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16.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 Sep 15;307:138-149. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.003. Epub 2016 Aug 7.

Hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B, a nutmeg lignan, against oxidative stress: Role of Nrf2 activation through ERK phosphorylation and AMPK-dependent inhibition of GSK-3β.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Republic of Korea.
2
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ymikim12@hanyang.ac.kr.

Abstract

Oxidative stress can contribute to the development and progression of liver diseases, such as drug-induced or alcoholic liver injury, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nectandrin B is a bioactive lignan isolated from nutmeg extract. To date, little information is available about its pharmacological activities in the liver. This study investigated the hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative injury and the underlying molecular mechanism. The cell viability assay revealed that nectandrin B prevents apoptosis stimulated by tert-butylhydroperoxide in both HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. Nectandrin B also attenuated ROS production and restored the depleted glutathione level. Real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase, an enzyme responsible for the glutathione biosynthesis, was induced by nectandrin B, indicating its indirect antioxidative effect. The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) regulates gene expression of an array of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocytes. Nectandrin B stimulated Nrf2 activation as evidenced by its enhanced nuclear accumulation and increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity. Intriguingly, the hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B against oxidative damage was completely abrogated by Nrf2 knockdown using Nrf2 specific siRNA. Nectandrin B promoted ERK activation, but inactivated GSK-3β through the AMPK-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation. The enforced overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of MEK1 or AMPKα, or wild-type GSK-3β inhibited the increase in the NQO1-ARE-luciferase activity stimulated by nectandrin B, suggesting that both ERK and AMPK-GSK-3β signalings are involved in the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by nectandrin B. Consistent with this, cytoprotection and restoration of glutathione level by nectandrin B was also blocked by the overexpression of dominant-negative MEK1 or wild-type GSK-3β. Finally, our data demonstrate that nectandrin B has the ability to protect hepatocytes against oxidative injury through the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway mediated by ERK phosphorylation and AMPK-dependent inactivation of GSK-3β.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant enzymes; ERK; GSK-3β; Hepatocyte protection; Nectandrin B; Nrf2

PMID:
27511913
DOI:
10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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17.
Am J Chin Med. 2016;44(5):1063-79. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X16500592. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Myristica fragrans Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metabolism by Inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase A.

Author information

1
* Healthy Aging Korean Medical Research Center, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea.
2
† Department of Food Science and Technology, Keimyung University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
3
‡ Department of Clinical Pathology, TaeKyeung University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
4
§ Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Oriental Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Most cancer cells predominantly produce ATP by maintaining a high rate of lactate fermentation, rather than by maintaining a comparatively low rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle, i.e., Warburg's effect. In the pathway, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here, we demonstrated that water extracts from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MF) inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of LDH. MF effectively suppressed cell growth and the overall Warburg effect in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Although the expression of LDH-A was not changed by MF, both lactate production and LDH activity were decreased in MF-treated cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, intracellular ATP levels were also decreased by MF treatment, and the uptake of glucose was also reduced by MF treatment. Furthermore, the experiment on tumor growth in the in vivo mice model revealed that MF effectively reduced the growth of allotransplanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MF effectively inhibits cancer growth and metabolism by inhibiting the activity of LDH, a major enzyme responsible for regulating cancer metabolism. These results implicate MF as a potential candidate for development into a novel drug against cancer through inhibition of LDH activity.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer Metabolism; Lactate Dehydrogenase; Myristica fragrans; Warburg Effect

PMID:
27430914
DOI:
10.1142/S0192415X16500592
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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18.
J Nat Prod. 2016 Aug 26;79(8):2005-13. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00262. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Neolignans from the Arils of Myristica fragrans as Potent Antagonists of CC Chemokine Receptor 3.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University , 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-sayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan.

Abstract

CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is expressed selectively in eosinophils, basophils, and some Th2 cells and plays a major role in allergic diseases. A methanol extract from the arils of Myristica fragrans inhibited CC chemokine ligand 11-induced chemotaxis in CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells at 100 μg/mL. From this extract, eight new neolignans, maceneolignans A-H (1-8), were isolated, and their stereostructures were elucidated from their spectroscopic values and chemical properties. Of those constituents, compounds 1, 4, 6, and 8 and (+)-erythro-(7S,8R)-Δ(8')-7-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (11), (-)-(8R)-Δ(8')-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (17), (+)-licarin A (20), nectandrin B (25), verrucosin (26), and myristicin (27) inhibited CCR3-mediated chemotaxis at a concentration of 1 μM. Among them, 1 (EC50 1.6 μM), 6 (1.5 μM), and 8 (1.4 μM) showed relatively strong activities, which were comparable to that of a synthetic CCR3 selective antagonist, SB328437 (0.78 μM).

PMID:
27419473
DOI:
10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00262
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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19.
Nat Prod Commun. 2016 Apr;11(4):483-8.

HPLC-Guided Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Phenylpropanoid and Phenolic Constituents of Nutmeg Kernel (Myristica fragrans).

Abstract

Many studies on the biological activities of nutmeg continue to appear in the literature. The most common targets include GIT, CNS, oxidative stress and inflammation. However, results obtained from most studies are often inconsistent due to the variability of utilized samples, lack of standardized nutmeg products or insufficient amounts of pure compounds for comprehensive follow-up investigation. To address the consistency and supply issue we utilized available technology to develop a reproducible procedure for preparation of specific extracts and isolation of the major phenolic constituents present in nutmeg kemel. A well-defined and reproducible sequence of extraction, fractionation and chromatographic purification was adopted and was guided by HPLC fingerprinting. Spectroscopic methods, mainly NMR, and mass spectrometry were utilized to identify each compound. Thirteen compounds were isolated in a pure form and identified as: elemicin (1), isoelemicin (2), myristicin (4), surinamensin (5), malabaricone C (6), 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l- acetoxy-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propyl ester (7), methoxylicarin A (8), licarin A (9), malabaricone B (10), licarin C (11), 5'-methoxylicarin B (12), licarin B (13), and 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l-methyl-5-methoxy-1,2-dihydrobenzofuran (3, a new compound). With repeated isolation runs, these pure compounds can be prepared in quantities sufficient for biological evaluation as needed. The availability of purified compounds will also allow the development of specific, accurate, and sensitive analytical procedures for pharmacokinetic studies and for quality control of nutmeg products. Both aspects are essential for nutmeg-focused drug discovery. The same approach can also be adapted to other medicinal plants of potential interest.

PMID:
27396199
PMCID:
PMC4943679
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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20.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2016 Jul;99 Suppl 4:S124-30.

Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extracts of Three Parts (Wood, Nutmeg and Mace) from Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Abstract

Background:

Myristica fragrans Houtt. is one of the spices that has long been used for treatment of various disorders. M. fragrans is known as Chan-thet and its three parts i.e. wood, seed (nutmeg) and aril (mace), are ingredients in various Thai traditional remedies such as anti-pyretic, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory remedies

Objective:

To investigate the biological activities of ethanolic extracts obtained from wood, nutmeg and mace of M. fragrans according to the uses in Thai traditional medicine follow as: anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and antioxidant activities.

Material and Method:

Three parts of M. fragrans (wood, nutmeg and mace) were macerated with 95% ethanol. The extracts were examined for anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory effect on LPS induced nitric oxide production release in RAW 264.7 cell lines, anti-oxidant activity by inhibitory effect on PMA-induce superoxide radical in DMSO differentiated from HL-60 cells, and anti-allergic activity by determining inhibitory activity of β-hexosaminidase release on RBL-2H3 cells.

Results:

The ethanolic extract of wood presented potent anti-inflammatory activity more than nutmeg and mace (IC50 values = 40.26+0.58, 65.42+4.95 and 75.40+4.14 μg/ml, respectively). Nutmeg and mace showed high anti-oxidant activity while wood showed moderate activity (IC50 values = 21.164+1.03, 28.897+0.39 and 71.830+1.33 μg/ml, respectively). The extracts obtained from the three parts (wood, nutmeg and mace) showed strong anti-allergic activity (IC50 values = 13.29+0.28, 20.90+1.03 and 12.95+0.89 μg/ml respectively).

Conclusion:

The extracts obtained from wood of M. fragrans showed high anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities but moderate anti-oxidant. The extracts of nutmeg and mace presented high anti-oxidant and anti-allergic activities but less antiinflammatory activity. Therefore, extract of wood should be selected for treatment of diseases that related with inflammation while the extracts of nutmeg and/or mace should be used as an antioxidant. Finally, extracts of all 3 parts of M. fragrans could be used for allergy-related diseases because all parts showed potent activity in anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles. However, the further study should be performed in animal models for investigation of each activity of active compounds following bioassay guided isolation.

PMID:
29926690
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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