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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 23;2018:5158243. doi: 10.1155/2018/5158243. eCollection 2018.

Antihypertensive Effect of Ethanolic Extract from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits and Quality Control of Active Compounds.

Author information

1
Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.
2
Daehwa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Seongnam 13488, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 27709, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Acanthopanax sessiliflorus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Seem., which belongs to the Araliaceae family, mainly inhabits Korea, China, and Japan. Traditionally, Acanthopanax species have been used as treatment for several diseases such as diabetes, tumors, and rheumatoid arthritis. Especially, its fruits have many biological functions including antitumor, immunostimulating, antithrombosis, and antiplatelet activities. Recently, the extract of A. sessiliflorus fruit has been reported to have antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities related to the alleviation of hypertension. Therefore, we investigated the antihypertensive effect of ethanolic extract from A. sessiliflorus fruits (DHP1501) through in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies. In this study, DHP1501 demonstrated free radical scavenging capacity, enhanced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, and inhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), resulting in the improvement of vascular relaxation and decrease in blood pressure in the hypertensive animal model. These results suggest that A. sessiliflorus fruit extract may be a promising functional material for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based active compounds for the quality control of DHP1501.

PMID:
29849899
PMCID:
PMC5937377
DOI:
10.1155/2018/5158243
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
Icon for Hindawi Publishing Corporation Icon for PubMed Central
2.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Mar;99:781-790. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.01.001. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Acanthopanax senticosus reduces brain injury in mice exposed to low linear energy transfer radiation.

Author information

1
Institute of Extreme Environment Nutrition and Protection, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China; National Local Joint Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Nutritional Molecule Synthesis Transformation and Separation, Harbin, China.
2
College of Computer Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
3
Biotechnologies of the Third Millennium, ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
4
China Astronaut Research and Training Centre, Beijing, China.
5
Institute of Extreme Environment Nutrition and Protection, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China; China Astronaut Research and Training Centre, Beijing, China. Electronic address: liyongzhi666@sina.com.
6
Institute of Extreme Environment Nutrition and Protection, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China; National Local Joint Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Nutritional Molecule Synthesis Transformation and Separation, Harbin, China. Electronic address: lwh@hit.edu.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Compared with pharmaceuticals, natural medicines are gaining acceptance as countermeasures against radiation injury because of their distinct characteristics, specifically low toxicity and multi-target effects.

METHODS:

The ability of a traditional Chinese medicine, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS), to reduce radiation injury following exposure of the heads of mice to 4?Gy low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation was assessed histologically, behaviorally and metabolically''.

RESULTS:

Irradiated mice administered AS extract showed improved learning ability and central nervous system (CNS) function. AS extract effectively controlled nerve cell swelling, protein loss, and necrotic tissue liquefaction that was observed in the irradiated mouse brain. Metabolomics data demonstrated that treatment with AS extract resulted in significant quantitative changes of 16 classes of cerebral metabolites in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of irradiated mice. Using a principal component analysis (PCA), three principal components, F1, F2 and F3, were identified as related to brain energy metabolism, brain tissue development, and brain glutamate cycle, respectively. In addition, the F2 and F3 scores of the AS-treated group of mice were higher compared to mice that were treated with Venlafaxine. Furthermore, the efficiency of balancing the glutamate cycle that the AS-treated group achieved was two times greater than that of the mice treated with Venlafaxine.

CONCLUSIONS:

AS is a promising approach to reduce radiation-induced brain injury. Further studies are warranted to examine the potential of AS to reduce the side effects caused by chemotherapeutics.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax senticosus 1; Low-linear energy transfer 2; Metabolomics 5; Prefrontal cortex 4; Radiation injury 3

PMID:
29710476
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopha.2018.01.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
3.
Molecules. 2018 Apr 19;23(4). pii: E958. doi: 10.3390/molecules23040958.

Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acankoreagenin from the Leaves of Acanthopanax Gracilistylus Herb in RIN-m5F Cells via Suppression of NF-κB Activation.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China. sweetlumanxia@163.com.
2
School of Life Sciences, Datong University, Datong 037009, China. dwxlll215@163.com.
3
Changsha Broad-Ocean Bio-Science and Technique Co., Ltd., Changsha 410205, China. zouqinpeng@163.com.
4
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China. LJhnzyy@163.com.
5
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China. surblue77@163.com.
6
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China. lxq0001cn@163.com.
7
Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea. ehhwang@wku.ac.kr.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic degenerative disease that causes long-term complications and represents a serious public health problem. In this manuscript, acankoreagenin isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus (LAG) is thought to possess excellent anti-diabetic properties. In vitro, anti-diabetic activities were assessed based on the inhibitory activities with α-glucosidase (IC50 13.01 μM), α-amylase (IC50 30.81 μM), and PTP1B (IC50 16.39 μM). Acankoreagenin showed better anti-diabetic effects. Then, an investigation was performed to analyze the insulin secretion effects of the insulin-secreting cell line in RIN-m5F cells. It was found that acankoreagenin could increase the insulin release in RIN-m5F cells. It was also found that acankoreagenin reduced NO production, activity of caspase-3, and the reactive oxygen species levels in the cells injured by processing of cytokines. In western blotting, inactivation of NF-κB signaling was confirmed. Acankoreagenin (20 μM) showed a higher I-κBα expression and lower NF-κB expression than the control group and showed a better expression than the positive control L-NAME (1 mM) (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates the anti-diabetic effects of acankoreagenin in vitro and suggests acankoreagenin might offer therapeutic potential for treating diabetes mellitus.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax gracilistylus; PTP1B; RIN-m5F cells; acankoreagenin; anti-diabetic effects; α-amylase; α-glucosidase

PMID:
29671829
DOI:
10.3390/molecules23040958
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
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4.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2018 Apr;57:33-42. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.02.007. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Study on antidepressant activity of chiisanoside in mice.

Author information

1
College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.
2
Ningxia People's Hospital, Yinchuan, China.
3
Jilin University, Changchun, China.
4
College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address: zhaoyan@jlau.edu.cn.
5
College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address: gaoyugang_2006@163.com.

Abstract

The antidepressant-like effect of chiisanoside from the leaves of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus was evaluated by using mice models of depression, forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The results showed that treatment with chiisanoside at dose of 5.0 mg/kg significantly decreased immobility time in the FST and TST. Pretreatment with haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of chiisanoside (5.0 mg/kg). Moreover, chiisanoside treatment did not change the locomotor activity. And chiisanoside (5.0 mg/kg) also effectively increased the dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in mice brains exposed to the FST and TST in the co-treatment groups. Then we designed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced antidepressant behavioral experiment, the results showed that LPS significantly increased immobility duration in the TST and FST. Chiisanoside administration could effectively reduce serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels; at the same time, the changes of related indexes of oxidative stress are improved, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, chiisanoside effectively down-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hippocampal. In conclusion, chiisanoside displayed significant antidepressant-like effect, which was probably related to the DAergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. And the mechanism of anti-depressant effect of chiisanoside might be via the alterations of animal behaviors, hippocampus inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophy, which might be attributed by the BDNF/TrkB/NF-κB pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Antidepressant-like effect; Central nervous system; Chiisanoside; Inflammation; NF-κB; Oxidative stress

PMID:
29459269
DOI:
10.1016/j.intimp.2018.02.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
5.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jan 15;19(1). pii: E159. doi: 10.3390/ijms19010159.

Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on Brain Injury Induced by Simulated Spatial Radiation in Mouse Model Based on Pharmacokinetics and Comparative Proteomics.

Zhou Y1,2, Cheng C3,4, Baranenko D5, Wang J6, Li Y7,8, Lu W9,10.

Author information

1
Institute of Extreme Environment Nutrition and Protection, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China. zhouyingyu_work@outlook.com.
2
National Local Joint Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Nutritional Molecule Synthesis Transformation and Separation, Harbin 150001, China. zhouyingyu_work@outlook.com.
3
Institute of Extreme Environment Nutrition and Protection, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China. ccuilin@hit.edu.cn.
4
National Local Joint Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Nutritional Molecule Synthesis Transformation and Separation, Harbin 150001, China. ccuilin@hit.edu.cn.
5
Biotechnologies of the Third Millennium, ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg 197101, Russia. denis.baranenko@niuitmo.ru.
6
China Astronaut Research and Training Centre, Beijing 100193, China. wangjiaping_1113@163.com.
7
National Local Joint Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Nutritional Molecule Synthesis Transformation and Separation, Harbin 150001, China. liyongzhi666@sina.com.
8
China Astronaut Research and Training Centre, Beijing 100193, China. liyongzhi666@sina.com.
9
Institute of Extreme Environment Nutrition and Protection, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China. lwh@hit.edu.cn.
10
National Local Joint Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Nutritional Molecule Synthesis Transformation and Separation, Harbin 150001, China. lwh@hit.edu.cn.

Abstract

The active compounds in Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) have different pharmacokinetic characteristics in mouse models. Cmax and AUC of Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) were significantly reduced in radiation-injured mice, suggesting that the blood flow of mouse was blocked or slowed, due to the pathological state of ischemia and hypoxia, which are caused by radiation. In contrast, the ability of various metabolizing enzymes to inactivate, capacity of biofilm transport decrease, and lessening of renal blood flow accounts for radiation, resulting in the accumulation of syringin and eleutheroside E in the irradiated mouse. Therefore, there were higher pharmacokinetic parameters-AUC, MRT, and t1/2 of the two compounds in radiation-injured mouse, when compared with normal mouse. In order to investigate the intrinsic mechanism of AS on radiation injury, AS extract's protective effects on brain, the main part of mouse that suffered from radiation, were explored. The function of AS extract in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mouse brain included tubulin protein family (α-, β-tubulin subunits), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (CRMP2), γ-actin, 14-3-3 protein family (14-3-3ζ, ε), heat shock protein 90β (HSP90β), and enolase 2. The results demonstrated the AS extract had positive effects on nerve cells' structure, adhesion, locomotion, fission, and phagocytosis, through regulating various action pathways, such as Hippo, phagosome, PI3K/Akt (phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B), Neurotrophin, Rap1 (Ras-related protein RAP-1A), gap junction glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and HIF-1 (Hypoxia-inducible factor 1) signaling pathways to maintain normal mouse neurological activity. All of the results indicated that AS may be a promising alternative medicine for the treatment of radiation injury in mouse brain. It would be tested that whether the bioactive ingredients of AS could be effective through the blood-brain barrier in the future.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax senticosus (AS); brain injury; pharmacokinetic; proteomics

PMID:
29342911
PMCID:
PMC5796108
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19010159
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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6.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Mar;99:128-133. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.01.050. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Caspase-3/MAPK pathways as main regulators of the apoptotic effect of the phyto-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticle from dried stem of Eleutherococcus senticosus in human cancer cells.

Author information

1
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: gare1@hanmail.net.
2
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ca.veronica@khu.ac.kr.
3
Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ragavabbai@khu.ac.kr.
4
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: Khuhanbang@gmail.com.
5
Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: sksimu2@khu.ac.kr.
6
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: navycki@khu.ac.kr.
7
Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: doorbest@khu.ac.kr.
8
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea.
9
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea; Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: dcyang@khu.ac.kr.

Abstract

Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) was used for the synthesis of an ecofriendly silver nanoparticle (Sg-AgNP), which has exhibited antibacterial, antioxidant effect and lower cytotoxicity to normal cells in comparison to human cancer cells. Although, the potential anticancer activity of Sg-AgNP has not been determined. In this study, two cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect of Sg-AgNP along with the determination of the role of the Caspase-3 / p38 MAPK pathways. Results shown that Sg-AgNP reduced the cell viability of colon cancer cells HT29 and lung cancer cells A549. The cytotoxic effect was higher than the effect exhibited by a commercial silver nanoparticle and Cisplatin. Reactive oxygen species were observed to be superior in both cell lines in the presence of Sg-AgNPs than c-AgNPs and Cisplatin. It was observed an activation of MAPK14 gene and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK protein in both cell lines induced by Sg-AgNPs treatment. Furthermore, induction of morphological changes in the nucleus was done by Sg-AgNPs at 10 μg/mL in both cell lines. On the other hands, the activation of CASP3 gene and Caspase-3 protein was observed in HT29 cells but only at protein level in A549 cells. These results, suggest that Sg-AgNPs anticancer potential activity might be linked to the induction of apoptosis though the generation of ROS by activation of the Caspase-3/p38 MAPK pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Anticancer; Apoptosis; MAPK pathway; Siberian ginseng; Silver nanoparticles

PMID:
29331758
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopha.2018.01.050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
7.
Molecules. 2018 Jan 1;23(1). pii: E87. doi: 10.3390/molecules23010087.

Lupane Triterpenes from the Leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, Hunan, China. lixiaojun2017@yahoo.com.
2
College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Korea. lixiaojun2017@yahoo.com.
3
Broad-Ocean Bio-Science and Technique Co., Ltd. of Changsha, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China. zouqinpeng@163.com.
4
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, Hunan, China. hzywtlwx@163.com.
5
College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Korea. swamp1@naver.com.
6
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, Hunan, China. lumf7983@126.com.
7
Department of Oriental Medical Food & Nutrition, Semyung University, Jecheon 27136, Korea. skko@semyung.ac.kr.
8
School of Pharmacy, KyungHee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea. yookcs@khu.ac.kr.
9
College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Korea. yckim@wku.ac.kr.
10
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, Hunan, China. lxq0001cn@163.com.

Abstract

The phytochemical study on the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus (Araliaceae) resulted in the discovery of a new lupane-triterpene compound, acangraciligenin S (1), and a new lupane-triterpene glycoside, acangraciliside S (2), as well as two known ones, 3α,11α-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23,28-dioic acid (3) and acankoreoside C (4). Their chemical structures were elucidated by mass, 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The chemical structures of the new compounds 1 and 2 were determined to be 1β,3α-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23, 28-dioic acid and 1β,3α-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl] ester, respectively. The anti-neuroinflammatory activity of the selective compounds, 1 and 3, were evaluated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglia. The tested compounds showed moderate inhibitory effect of nitric oxide (NO) production.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax gracilistylus; Araliaceae; acangraciligenin S; acangraciliside S; lupane-triterpene

PMID:
29301264
DOI:
10.3390/molecules23010087
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2018 Feb 1;162:398-404. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.11.037. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Gold nanoflowers synthesized using Acanthopanacis cortex extract inhibit inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages via NF-κB and AP-1 pathways.

Author information

1
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea; Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.
3
Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: yeonjukim@khu.ac.kr.
5
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea; Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: yangdeokchun@gmail.com.

Abstract

We reported the rapid synthesis (<8s) of gold nanoparticles at room temperature using Acanthopanacis cortex extract (A-AuNPs). We characterized the A-AuNPs using several analytical techniques and found that nano-flower type A-AuNPs, which are known to possess a coarse surface with a high surface to volume ratio, conferring these particles with high binding capacity for various biological molecules. After confirming the stability of the nanoparticles, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of A-AuNPs in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These nanoparticles inhibited LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein as well as gene expression level, along with reduction of NO and PGE2 production. Furthermore, we observed that the A-AuNPs inhibited translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 through phosphorylation of MAPK signaling by western blot analysis. In summary, we synthesized gold nanoflowers in an economical and eco-friendly way using Acanthopanacis cortex extract and the resultant flower-like A-AuNPs had anti-inflammatory activity, highlighting their potential as therapeutic candidates for suppression of inflammatory-mediated diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanacis cortex; Gold nanoflowers; Green synthesis; Inflammation

PMID:
29245117
DOI:
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.11.037
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2018 Feb 5;149:403-409. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.11.025. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Authentication of Eleutherococcus and Rhodiola herbal supplement products in the United Kingdom.

Author information

1
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, UK. Electronic address: m.ruhsam@rbge.ac.uk.
2
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, UK.

Abstract

Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus, Araliaceae) and roseroot (Rhodiola rosea, Rosaceae) are popular herbal supplements which have been shown to improve resilience to conditions such as stress and exhaustion. Using DNA barcoding methods we tested 25 Siberian ginseng and 14 roseroot products which are widely available to UK customers to test whether the herbal ingredient stated on the label is also in the product. All Siberian ginseng supplements contained E. senticosus, however, 36% also contained an Eleutherococcus species other than E. senticosus. In three out of the 13 roseroot products which produced amplifiable DNA, we could only retrieve sequences matching alfalfa (declared on the product label) and fenugreek (not declared). In the other 10 supplements Rhodiola was detected but only five matched the target species R. rosea. As DNA can get severely degraded during the manufacturing process we did not take the absence of Rhodiola DNA as proof for a compromised product. Contamination could explain the presence of non-target species such as fenugreek but is unlikely to be account for the detection of congeneric Rhodiola species in roseroot preparations. Our results therefore suggest that the substitution or mixing of the target medicinal ingredient in these two popular supplements with other species is common.

KEYWORDS:

Adulteration; DNA barcoding; Medicinal herbs; Quality control; Roseroot; Siberian ginseng

PMID:
29154110
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpba.2017.11.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.
Fitoterapia. 2018 Jan;124:167-176. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.11.007. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Isolation, modification and cytotoxic evaluation of stilbenoids from Acanthopanax leucorrhizus.

Author information

1
College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Longdong University, Qingyang 745000, PR China. Electronic address: 2396402556@qq.com.
2
Department of Oncology, Qingyang First People's Hospital, Qingyang 745000, PR China.
3
College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Longdong University, Qingyang 745000, PR China.
4
College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, PR China.

Abstract

Twenty natural stilbenoids (1-20), including seven new stilbenoids (2, 4-7, 19, 20) and thirteen known stilbenoids (1, 3, 8-18), were isolated from the stem barks of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus, and six modified stilbenoid derivatives (1a, 2a, 4a, 4b, 7a and 17a) were obtained via methylation, demethylation and isopentenylation of the corresponding isolates (1, 2, 4, 7 and 17). These stilbenoids were structurally characterized by comprehensive analysis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with literature information, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human tumor cell lines (leukemia HL-60, hepatoma SMMC-7721 and breast carcinoma MCF-7) in vitro by MTT assay. The results showed that compounds 1a, 4a and 4b showed potent selective cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721 (IC50=10.16±1.95μM and 9.76±1.32μM) and MCF-7 (IC50=10.72±2.78μM) cell lines. The cytotoxic evaluation of these structurally modified stilbenoid derivatives have led to the establishment of a structure-activity relationship.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax leucorrhizus; Cytotoxicity; Stilbenoids; Structure-activity relationship

PMID:
29128601
DOI:
10.1016/j.fitote.2017.11.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.
Chin J Nat Med. 2017 Aug;15(8):625-630. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30090-0.

Preparative separation and quantitative determination of two kaurenoic acid isomers in root barks of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China.
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address: chengzhh@fudan.edu.cn.
3
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address: dfchen@shmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

The kaurenoic acid-type diterpenoids in Acanthopanacis Cortex have been reported to be the major active components. However, the diterpenoids are present as position isomers that exacerbate the challenges in obtaining standards compounds. Little work has been done on the quantitative analysis of the diterpenoids in the herb. In the present study, two diterpenoid isomers ent-16βH,17-isovalerate-kauran-19-oic acid (1) and ent-16βH,17-methyl butanoate-kauran-19-oic acid (2) with high purity were separated by analytical HPLC, followed by recrystallization in acetone. Furthermore, an HPLC-ELSD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 1 and 2 in 9 batches of Acanthopanacis Cortex samples. The HPLC separation and quantification was achieved in 40 min using an Agela Promosil C18 column eluted with a gradient of water and acetonitrile. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.999 9) within the test ranges. The LOD ranged from 0.407 2 to 0.518 0 μg and LOQ ranged from 1.018 0 to 1.295 0 μg. The precisions (%RSD) were within 1.47% for the two isomers. The recovery of the assay was in the range of 98.78%-99.11% with RSD values less than 2.76%. It is the first time to establish a quantitative HPLC method for the analysis of the bioactive kaurenoic acid isomers in the herb.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax gracilistylus; HPLC-ELSD; Kaurenoic Acid; Quantification

PMID:
28939025
DOI:
10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30090-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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12.
Int J Mol Med. 2017 Oct;40(4):1285-1293. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2017.3099. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Antimicrobial activity and synergism of ursolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside with oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Author information

1
Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Institute of Biotechnology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea.
2
School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan 410-208, P.R. China.
3
Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, College of Bio Industry Science, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-742, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of a single constituent, ursolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (URS), isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax henryi (Oliv.) Harms, alone and in combination with oxacillin (OXA) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The synergistic effects of URS and OXA were determined using a checkerboard dilution test and time-kill curve assay. The mechanism of action of URS against MRSA was analyzed using a viability assay in the presence of a detergent and an ATPase inhibitor. Morphological changes in the URS-treated MRSA strains were evaluated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the producing penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) protein level was analyzed using western blotting. The MIC value of URS against MRSA was found to be 6.25 µg/ml and there was a partial synergistic effect between OXA and URS. The time-kill growth curves were suppressed by OXA combined with URS at a sub-inhibitory level. Compared to the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) value of URS alone (0.09 µg/ml), the OD600 values of the suspension in the presence of 0.09 µg/ml URS and 0.00001% Triton X-100 or 250 µg/ml N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide reduced by 56.6 and 85.9%, respectively. The TEM images of MRSA indicated damage to the cell wall, broken cell membranes and cell lysis following treatment with URS and OXA. Finally, an inhibitory effect on the expression of PBP2a protein was observed when cells were treated with URS and OXA compared with untreated controls. The present study suggested that URS was significantly active against MRSA infections and revealed the potential of URS as an effective natural antibiotic.

PMID:
28848992
DOI:
10.3892/ijmm.2017.3099
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.
Chem Biodivers. 2017 Nov;14(11). doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201700244. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Structural Modification of Stilbenoids from Acanthopanax leucorrhizus and Their Cytotoxic Activity.

Author information

1
College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Longdong University, Qingyang, 745000, P. R. China.
2
Department of Oncology, Qingyang First People's Hospital, Qingyang, 745000, P. R. China.
3
College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, 730070, P. R. China.

Abstract

A new cis-stilbenoid, 1,9-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-6H-dibenzo[b,f]oxocin-6-one (2) was isolated from the AcOEt extract of the stem barks of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus, along with three known stilbenoids, 9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-6H-dibenzo[b,f]oxocin-6-one (1), 5-O-methyl-(E)-resveratrol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), and (E)-resveratrol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (4). Two derivatives (2a and 2b) were synthesized by the structural modification of compound 2, which exhibited certain cytotoxic activities against HT-29 and HeLa cell lines in vitro. All compounds were structurally characterized by comprehensive analysis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with literature information, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human tumor cell lines (HL-60, HT-29, and HeLa) by the standard MTT assay in vitro. The results showed that derivatives 2a and 2b exhibited strong activities than compounds 2 against HT-29 and HeLa cell lines.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax leucorrhizus ; Cytotoxic activity; Isolation; Stilbenoids; Structural modification

PMID:
28805955
DOI:
10.1002/cbdv.201700244
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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14.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Sep 14;209:73-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.07.034. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Impressic acid from Acanthopanax koreanum, possesses matrix metalloproteinase-13 down-regulating capacity and protects cartilage destruction.

Author information

1
College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, South Korea.
2
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, South Korea.
3
College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Deagu, Gyeongsan 712-702, South Korea.
4
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, South Korea. Electronic address: yhk@cnu.ac.kr.
5
College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, South Korea. Electronic address: hpkim@kangwon.ac.kr.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Acanthopanax koreanum (Araliaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for enhancing vitality, rheumatism, and bone-related pains. But its activity on cartilage protection has not been known yet.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 has an important role in degrading cartilage materials under pathologic conditions such as arthritis. The present study was designed to find the inhibitory activity of impressic acid on MMP-13 expression and cartilage protective action.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

70% ethanol extract of Acanthopanax koreanum leaves and impressic acid, a major constituent isolated from the same plant materials, were examined on MMP-13 down-regulating capacity in IL-1β-treated human chondrocyte cell line (SW1353) and rabbit cartilage explants.

RESULTS:

In IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells, impressic acid significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited MMP-13 expression at 0.5-10μM. Impressic acid was found to be able to inhibit MMP-13 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1/-2 (STAT-1/-2) and activation of c-Jun and c-Fos among the cellular signaling pathways involved. Further, impressic acid was found to inhibit the expression of MMP-13 mRNA (47.7% inhibition at 10μM), glycosaminoglycan release (42.2% reduction at 10μM) and proteoglycan loss in IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explants culture. In addition, a total of 21 lupane-type triterpenoids structurally-related to impressic acid were isolated from the same plant materials and their suppressive activities against MMP-13 expression were also examined. Among these derivatives, compounds 2, 3, 16, and 18 clearly down-regulated MMP-13 expression. However, impressic acid was more potent than these derivatives in down-regulating MMP-13 expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Impressic acid, its related triterpenoids, and A. koreanum extract have potential as therapeutic agents to prevent cartilage degradation by inhibiting matrix protein degradation.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax koreanum; Cartilage; Impressic acid; Matrix metalloproteinase

PMID:
28735730
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2017.07.034
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
15.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Aug 15;32:59-67. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.03.005. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Safety evaluation of Astragalus extract mixture HT042 and its constituent herbs in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Author information

1
Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, South Korea.
2
Korea Institute of Science and Technology for Eastern Medicine (KISTEM), NeuMed Inc., 88 Imun-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02440, South Korea.
3
Nonclinical Research Institute, Chemon Inc., 240 Nampyeong-ro, Yangji-myeon, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17162, South Korea.
4
Department of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, 892 Dongnam-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 05278, South Korea.
5
Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, South Korea. Electronic address: hckim@khu.ac.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a combination of three standardized extracts from Astragalus membranaceus root, Eleutherococcus senticosus stem, and Phlomis umbrosa root, which has proven to stimulate children's height growth.

PURPOSE:

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety of HT042 and its three constituent herbs when administered orally.

METHODS:

Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, HT042 and each of the herbs was administered at single doses of up to 5000 mg/kg. In the 13-week sub-chronic toxicity study, HT042 was administered at repeated doses of up to 4000 mg/kg/day.

RESULTS:

In the acute toxicity study of HT042 and each of the herbs, no deaths occurred and there was no indication of toxicity, on the basis of clinical signs, body weight, and necropsy findings. In the sub-chronic toxicity study of HT042, there were no deaths and no changes in clinical signs or the findings of ophthalmic examinations. Although there were some treatment-related changes in other findings, these alterations were not considered toxicologically significant because they remained within normal ranges or recovered during the recovery period.

CONCLUSION:

The oral approximate lethal doses of HT042 and each of the herbs were > 5000 mg/kg, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level of HT042 was 4000 mg/kg/day in male and female rats.

KEYWORDS:

Astragalus extract mixture; Astragalus membranaceus; Eleutherococcus senticosus; HT042; Phlomis umbrosa; Toxicity

PMID:
28732808
DOI:
10.1016/j.phymed.2017.03.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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16.
Planta Med. 2018 Jan;84(1):42-48. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-114425. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

The Identification of Araliaceae Species by ITS2 Genetic Barcoding and Pollen Morphology.

Author information

1
University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
2
Federal Biodiversity Scientific Center, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.
3
National Scientific Centre of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.
4
Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada.

Abstract

The genetic barcode ITS2 (ITS: internal transcribed spacer) and pollen morphology were used for the identification of the pharmacologically valuable wild Araliaceae species Panax ginseng, Oplopanax elatus, Aralia elata, Aralia continentalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus inhabiting the natural forests of Primorye, Russia. The ITS2 locus successfully identified all six species, which supports the use of ITS2 as a standard barcode for medicinal plants. However, the ITS2 locus was insufficient for intra-specific discrimination in these species, neither within Primorye nor from other world representatives within GenBank. Araliaceae pollen was confirmed to undergo size-reducing metamorphosis. The final morphotypes were species-specific for each of the six species but could not discriminate intra-species geographic localities within Primorye. The morphologies of the final pollen morphotypes from homologous species inhabiting other parts of the world are not yet known. Therefore, whether pollen is applicable for Araliaceae intra-species discrimination between Primorye and other world localities could not be established. Based on these findings, we propose that the ITS2 genetic barcode and the final pollen morphotypes are suitable for the identification of Araliaceae species. However, further studies will be needed to determine the suitability of genetic and pollen traits for Araliaceae geographic authentication.

PMID:
28701020
DOI:
10.1055/s-0043-114425
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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17.
Fitoterapia. 2017 Sep;121:58-63. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.06.025. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Four new neolignans isolated from Eleutherococcus senticosus and their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity (PTP1B).

Author information

1
College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, 3999 Binjiangdong Road, Jilin City, Jilin Province 132013, People's Republic of China.
2
Chemical Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Chungbuk 363-883, Republic of Korea.
3
College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, 3999 Binjiangdong Road, Jilin City, Jilin Province 132013, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: cuilong71@beihua.edu.cn.

Abstract

Four new compounds, erythro-7'E-4-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8,5'-oxyneoligna-7'-ene-7,9-diol-9'-al (1), (7S,8S)-4-hydroxy-3,1',3'-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-9-ol (5), (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9,9'-diol (6) and (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3',9'-trimethoxy-4'-7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9-ol (7). Along with four known compounds (2-4, 8) were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against PTP1B, VHR and PP1. Among them, compounds 1-4 and 6-8 were found to exhibit selective inhibitory activity on PTP1B with IC50 values ranging from 17.2±1.6 to 32.7±1.2μM.

KEYWORDS:

Eleutherococcus senticosus; Neo-lignans; Obesity; PTP1B

PMID:
28676388
DOI:
10.1016/j.fitote.2017.06.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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18.
Molecules. 2017 Apr 22;22(4). pii: E671. doi: 10.3390/molecules22040671.

Effects of Flavonoids and Triterpene Analogues from Leaves of Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. 'Himeukogi' in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

Author information

1
College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-5-1 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan. nishina.atsuyoshi@nihon-u.ac.jp.
2
College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-5-1 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan. csms15006@g.nihon-u.ac.jp.
3
College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-5-1 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan. suzuki.yuusuke@nihon-u.ac.jp.
4
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan. koketsu@gifu-u.ac.jp.
5
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan. ninomiya@gifu-u.ac.jp.
6
Department of Biomedical Information Engineering, Graduate School of Medical Science, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iidanishi, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan. d_sato@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp.
7
School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, 7-7-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8555, Japan. suzuki.takashi85@nihon-u.ac.jp.
8
Department of Pathology and Microbiology ,School of Medicine, Nihon University, 30-1 Ohotaniguchi-kamicho, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan. hayakawa.satoshi@nihon-u.ac.jp.
9
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan. makokuro@niid.go.jp.
10
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan. kimhiro@nih.go.jp.

Abstract

Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. is a local product from the area in and around Yonezawa City in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time. We isolated and identified four types of flavonoid glycosides [astragalin (1), isoquercetin (2), rhamnocitrin 3-O-glucoside (3), and nicotiflorin (4)], a triterpene [methyl hederagenin (5)], and three types of triterpene glycosides [δ-hederin (6), echinocystic acid 3-O-arabinoside (7), and cauloside B (8)] from the methanol extract of E. sieboldianus, which regulates lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Among the compounds isolated, 2 and 8 up- and down-regulated lipid accumulation and insulin induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Compound 2 induced up-regulation of lipid accumulation and decreased adipocyte size, while 8 down-regulated lipid accumulations without decreasing cell size. Additionally, 2 increased adipogenic proteins [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and fatty-acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4)]. In contrast, 8 decreased the levels of all adipogenic proteins and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), but increased adiponectin.

KEYWORDS:

Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz.; adipogenesis; glucose transporter type 4; lipogenesis; lipolysis

PMID:
28441735
DOI:
10.3390/molecules22040671
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
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19.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar 28;23(12):2175-2184. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i12.2175.

Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides-induced intestinal tight junction injury alleviation via inhibition of NF-κB/MLCK pathway in a mouse endotoxemia model.

Author information

1
Jie Han, Guo-Shun Shen, Jing Chen, Jia-Nan Liu, Xian-Jun Liu, Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Liaoning Province, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, Liaoning Province, China.

Abstract

AIM:

To examine the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) on intestinal tight junction (TJ) disruption and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activation in endotoxemia.

METHODS:

BALB/C mice (6-8-weeks-old) received continuous intragastric gavage of ASPS for 7 d before injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or received ASPS once after LPS injection. Blood and intestinal mucosal samples were collected 6 h after LPS challenge. Clinical symptoms, histological injury, intestinal permeability, TJ ultrastructure, and TJ protein expression were determined.

RESULTS:

Compared with mice in the LPS group, pretreatment with ASPS improved clinical and histological scores by 390.9% (P < 0.05) and 57.89% (P < 0.05), respectively, and gut permeability change in endotoxemic mice was shown by a 61.93% reduction in reduced leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 6 h after LPS injection (P < 0.05). ASPS pretreatment also prevented LPS-induced TJ ultrastructure breakdown supported by increased electron dense materials between adjoining cells, sustained redistribution and expression of occludin (0.597 ± 0.027 vs 0.103 ± 0.009, P < 0.05) and zonula occludens-1 (0.507 ± 0.032 vs 0.125 ± 0.019, P < 0.05), and suppressed activation of the NF-κB/MLCK pathway indicated by reduced expression of NF-κB, phospho-inhibitor kappa B-alpha, MLCK and phospho-myosin light-chain-2 by 16.06% (P < 0.05), 54.31% (P < 0.05), 66.10% (P < 0.05) and 64.82% (P < 0.05), respectively.

CONCLUSION:

ASPS pretreatment may be associated with inhibition of the NF-κB/MLCK pathway and concomitant amelioration of LPS-induced TJ dysfunction of intestinal epithelium in endotoxemia.

KEYWORDS:

Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharide; Intestinal permeability; Myosin light chain kinase; Nuclear factor-kappa B; Tight junction

PMID:
28405145
PMCID:
PMC5374129
DOI:
10.3748/wjg.v23.i12.2175
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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20.
J Med Entomol. 2017 May 1;54(3):658-669. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjw221.

Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) Leaf Morpho-Anatomy, Essential Oil Composition, and Its Biological Activity Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

Author information

1
National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677 ( zhaicm163@163.com; meiwang@olemiss.edu; vraman@olemiss.edu; jurehman@olemiss.edu; ymeng@olemiss.edu; jianping@olemiss.edu; bavula@olemiss.edu; wangyh@olemiss.edu; ikhan@olemiss.edu ).
2
Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150040, China.
3
National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677 (zhaicm163@163.com; meiwang@olemiss.edu; vraman@olemiss.edu; jurehman@olemiss.edu; ymeng@olemiss.edu; jianping@olemiss.edu; bavula@olemiss.edu; wangyh@olemiss.edu; ikhan@olemiss.edu).
4
Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677.

Abstract

The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently, the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potential source of compounds for mosquito management. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the leaf essential oil revealed 87 compounds, constituting 95.2% of the oil. α-Bisabolol (26.46%), β-caryophyllene (7.45%), germacrene D (6.87%), β-bisabolene (4.95%), and α-humulene (3.50%) were five of the major constituents. The essential oil was subjected to biting deterrence and repellent activity against mosquito Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of the oil produced a proportion not biting (PNB) value of 0.62 at 10 µg/cm2 as compared with 0.86 of control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at a standard dose of 25 nmol/cm2. Among individually selected compounds present in the oil (α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide), only α-bisabolol produced a PNB value of 0.80, equivalent to DEET at 25 nmol/cm2, whereas the others were not repellent. The artificial mixture (AMES-1) of these four selected compounds produced a relatively high PNB value of 0.80. The repellent activity measured by minimum effective dosage (MED) for α-bisabolol and α-humulene produced MED values of 0.094 and 0.104 mg/cm2, respectively, as compared with 0.023 mg/cm2 of DEET. The leaf essential oil, the artificial mixture (AMES-1), and other binary and tertiary combinations of major compounds showed no repellent activity. In addition, morpho-anatomical features of the leaf are provided for correct identification of the species.

KEYWORDS:

Aedes aegypti; Biting deterrence and repellent activity; Eleutherococcus senticosus; Essential oil composition; Morpho-anatomy

PMID:
28399215
DOI:
10.1093/jme/tjw221
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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