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1.
J Vis Exp. 2018 Jun 1;(136). doi: 10.3791/57613.

A Novel Method for the Pentosan Analysis Present in Jute Biomass and Its Conversion into Sugar Monomers Using Acidic Ionic Liquid.

Author information

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University; matsagar03@ntu.edu.tw.
2
International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS); Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), University of Wollongong.
3
Department of Biotechnology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University.
4
International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS); Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), University of Wollongong; School of Chemical Engineering & Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), University of Queensland; Department of Plant and Environmental New Resources, Kyung Hee University.
5
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University; kevinwu@ntu.edu.tw.

Abstract

Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) are used for biomass valorization into valuable chemicals because of their remarkable properties such as thermal stability, lower vapor pressure, non-flammability, higher heat capacity, and tunable solubility and acidity. Here, we demonstrate a method for the synthesis of C5 sugars (xylose and arabinose) from the pentosan present in jute biomass in a one-pot process by utilizing a catalytic amount of Brønsted acidic 1-methyl-3-(3-sulfopropyl)-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate IL. The acidic IL is synthesized in the lab and characterized using NMR spectroscopic techniques for understanding its purity. The various properties of BAIL are measured such as acid strength, thermal and hydrothermal stability, which showed that the catalyst is stable at a higher temperature (250 °C) and possesses very high acid strength (Ho 1.57). The acidic IL converts over 90% of pentosan into sugars and furfural. Hence, the presenting method in this study can also be employed for the evaluation of pentosan concentration in other kinds of lignocellulosic biomass.

PMID:
29912200
DOI:
10.3791/57613
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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2.
Microbiol Res. 2018 Mar;208:43-53. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2018.01.008.

Population diversity of bacterial endophytes from jute (Corchorus olitorius) and evaluation of their potential role as bioinoculants.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh. Electronic address: haseena@du.ac.bd.

Abstract

Endophytes are bacterial or fungal organisms associated with plants in an obligate or facultative manner. In order to maintain a stable symbiosis, many of the endophytes produce compounds that promote plant growth and help them adapt better to the environment. This study was conducted to explore the potential of jute bacterial endophytes for their growth promotion ability in direct and indirect ways. A total of 27 different bacterial species were identified from different varieties of a jute plant (Corchorus olitorius) and different parts of the plant (leaf, root, seed, and seedling) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Two of the isolates showed ACC deaminase activity with Staphylococcus pasteuri strain MBL_B3 and Ralstonia solanacearum strain MBL_B6 producing 18.1 and 8.08 μM mg-1 h-1 α-ketobutyrate respectively while eighteen had the ACC deaminase gene (acdS). Fourteen were positive for siderophore activity while Kocuria sp. strain MBL_B19 (133.36 μg/ml) and Bacillus sp. strain MBL_B17 (124.72 μg/ml) showed high IAA production ability. Seven bacterial strains were able to fix nitrogen with only one testing positive for nifH gene. Five isolates exhibited phosphorus utilization ability with Bacillus sp. strain MBL_B17 producing 218.47 μg P/ml. Three bacteria were able to inhibit the growth of a phytopathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina and among them Bacillus subtilis strain MBL_B4 was found to be the most effective, having 82% and 53% of relative inhibition ratio (RIR) and percent growth inhibition (PGI) values respectively. Nine bacteria were tested for their in vivo growth promotion ability and most of these isolates increased seed germination potential and vigour index significantly. Bacillus subtilis strain MBL_B13 showed 26.8% more vigour index than the control in which no bacterial inoculum was used. All inoculants were found to increase the dry weight of jute seedlings in comparison to the control plants and the most increase in fresh weight was found for Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain MBL_B9. Staphylococcus pasteuri strain MBL_B3 exhibited diverse in vitro growth promotion activity and significant growth promoting effect in in vivo pot experiments. These bacterial strains with plant growth enhancing abilities have the potential to be used as bioinoculants.

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA; Bioinoculants; Corchorus olitorius; Endophyte; Macrophomina phaseolina; Plant growth promotion

PMID:
29551211
DOI:
10.1016/j.micres.2018.01.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
Genome. 2018 May;61(5):323-327. doi: 10.1139/gen-2017-0191. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Development of an InDel polymorphism database for jute via comparative transcriptome analysis.

Author information

1
a Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Stem-fiber Biomass and Engineering Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, Changsha, China.
2
b Zhejiang Institute of Microbiology, Hangzhou, 310012, China.

Abstract

Jute (Corchorus spp.) is one of the most commercially important bast fiber crops in the world. However, molecular markers and high-density genetic maps are still lacking on jute compared with other crops. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers, one of the most abundant sources of DNA/RNA variations in plant genomes, can easily be distinguished among different accessions using high-throughput sequencing. Using three transcriptome datasets, we identified and developed InDel markers. Altogether, 51 172 InDel sites in 18 800 unigenes were discovered, and the number of InDel loci per unigene varied from 1 to 31. Further, we found 94 InDel types, varying from 1 to 159 bp; the most common were single-nucleotide (23 028), binucleotide (9824), and trinucleotide (9182). In total, 49 563 InDels in 18 445 transcripts were discovered in the comparison between TC and YG, followed by 48 934 InDels in 18 408 transcripts between NY and YG, and 3570 InDels in 2701 unigenes between NY and TC. Additionally, there were 1273 InDel sites in 1129 unigenes with polymorphisms between any two of the three accessions. Twenty-nine (58%) primer pairs represented polymorphisms when compared to the jute accessions, and PIC varied from 0.340 to 0.680, with an average of 0.491.

KEYWORDS:

Corchorus; InDel; high-throughput sequencing; indel; marker; marqueur; séquençage à haut débit

PMID:
29420906
DOI:
10.1139/gen-2017-0191
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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4.
PLoS One. 2017 Oct 23;12(10):e0185863. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185863. eCollection 2017.

De novo transcriptome sequencing of two cultivated jute species under salinity stress.

Author information

1
Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Stem-fiber Biomass and Engineering Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, Changsha, China.
2
Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Abstract

Soil salinity, a major environmental stress, reduces agricultural productivity by restricting plant development and growth. Jute (Corchorus spp.), a commercially important bast fiber crop, includes two commercially cultivated species, Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius. We conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of 24 C. capsularis and C. olitorius samples under salt stress and found 127 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs); additionally, 4489 and 492 common DEGs were identified in the root and leaf tissues, respectively, of both Corchorus species. Further, 32, 196, and 11 common differentially expressed transcription factors (DTFs) were detected in the leaf, root, or both tissues, respectively. Several Gene Ontology (GO) terms were enriched in NY and YY. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed numerous DEGs in both species. Abscisic acid and cytokinin signal pathways enriched respectively about 20 DEGs in leaves and roots of both NY and YY. The Ca2+, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were also found to be related to the plant response to salt stress, as evidenced by the DEGs in the roots of both species. These results provide insight into salt stress response mechanisms in plants as well as a basis for future breeding of salt-tolerant cultivars.

PMID:
29059212
PMCID:
PMC5653190
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0185863
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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5.
Nat Prod Res. 2018 Apr;32(8):968-971. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1367778. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Chemical sensing of Benzo[a]pyrene using Corchorus depressus fluorescent flavonoids.

Author information

1
a Department of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering , National University of Science & Technology , Islamabad , Pakistan.

Abstract

Plant phytochemicals, such as flavonoids are in use for the development of optical biosensor. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), is a pervasive environmental and dietary carcinogen. A fluorescent assay is developed using plant isolated flavonoid for the detection of B[a]P. High content saponins are excluded from the flavonoid-containing methanolic extract of Corchorus depressus by implying reduction of silver ions by saponins resulting in formation of silver nanoparticles. Isolated plant flavonoids are used to develop a spectrofluorometric assay for the detection of B[a]P. Decrease in the flavonoid fluorescence intensity by B[a]P is found to be based on both static and dynamic quenching. Specificity of the assay for B[a]P was tested for other carcinogens belonging to different classes of compounds. Flavonoids-mediated sensing can be implied for the development of new generation of nanoparticle-based biosensors that can be more sensitive and less susceptible to external factors, such as temperature and humidity.

KEYWORDS:

Benzo[a]pyrene; Corchorus depressus; flavonoids; fluorescence quenching

PMID:
28893098
DOI:
10.1080/14786419.2017.1367778
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
6.
PLoS One. 2017 Jun 21;12(6):e0178612. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178612. eCollection 2017.

An endophytic Basidiomycete, Grammothele lineata, isolated from Corchorus olitorius, produces paclitaxel that shows cytotoxicity.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
2
Development of Fiber and Polymer Science Laboratory, BCSIR, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
4
Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Abstract

Grammothele lineata, an endophyte isolated in our laboratory from jute (Corchorus olitorius acc. 2015) was found to be a substantial paclitaxel producer. Taxol and its related compounds, produced by this endophyte were extracted by growing the fungus in simple nutrient media (potato dextrose broth, PDB). Taxol was identified and characterized by different analytical techniques (TLC, HPLC, FTIR, LC-ESI-MS/MS) following its extraction by ethyl acetate. In PDB media, this fungus was found to produce 382.2 μgL-1 of taxol which is about 7.6 x103 fold higher than the first reported endophytic fungi, Taxomyces andreanae. The extracted taxol exhibited cytotoxic activity in an in vitro culture of HeLa cancer cell line. The fungal extract also exhibited antifungal and antibacterial activities against different pathogenic strains. This is the first report of a jute endophytic fungus harboring the capacity to produce taxol and also the first reported taxol producing species that belongs to the Basidiomycota phylum, so far unknown to be a taxol producer. These findings suggest that the fungal endophyte, Grammothele lineata can be an excellent source of taxol and can also serve as a potential species for chemical and genetic engineering to enhance further the production of taxol.

PMID:
28636663
PMCID:
PMC5479517
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0178612
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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7.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2017 Nov;183(3):980-992. doi: 10.1007/s12010-017-2477-5. Epub 2017 May 11.

Morphological, Histobiochemical and Molecular Characterisation of Low Lignin Phloem Fibre (llpf) Mutant of Dark Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

Author information

1
ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700120, India. shashigen@gmail.com.
2
ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700120, India.
3
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal, 741246, India.
4
Banaras Hindu University-Institute of Agricultural Science, Varanasi, U.P, 221005, India.
5
Nuclear Agriculture & Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085, India.

Abstract

Lignin is a versatile plant metabolite challenging high-end industrial applications of several plant products including jute. Application of developmental mutant in regulation of lignification in jute may open up door for much awaited jute based diversified products. In the present study, a novel dark jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) mutant with low lignin (7.23%) in phloem fibre being compared to wild-type JRO 204 (13.7%) was identified and characterised. Unique morphological features including undulated stem, petiole and leaf vein distinguished the mutant in gamma ray irradiated mutant population. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed reduced lignification of phloem fibre cells of the plant. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated temporal transcriptional regulation of CCoAMT1 gene in the mutant. The mutant was found an extremely useful model to study phloem fibre developmental biology in the crop besides acting as a donor genetic stock for low lignin containing jute fibre in dark jute improvement programme.

KEYWORDS:

CCoAMT1; Corchorus olitorius; Dark jute; Lignin; Mutant; Phloem fibre

PMID:
28497373
DOI:
10.1007/s12010-017-2477-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
BMC Genomics. 2017 May 8;18(1):355. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-3712-8.

High-density genetic map construction and QTLs identification for plant height in white jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) using specific locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops; Key Laboratory of Crops by Design, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350028, People's Republic of China.
2
Biomarker Technologies Corporation, 101300, Beijing, China.
3
Guangxi University, 530000, Nanning, China.
4
Eastern Agricultural Research Center, Montana State University, 59270, Sidney, Montana, USA.
5
Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops; Key Laboratory of Crops by Design, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350028, People's Republic of China. qijm863@163.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Genetic mapping and quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection are powerful methodologies in plant improvement and breeding. White jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) is an important industrial raw material fiber crop because of its elite characteristics. However, construction of a high-density genetic map and identification of QTLs has been limited in white jute due to a lack of sufficient molecular markers. The specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) strategy combines locus-specific amplification and high-throughput sequencing to carry out de novo single nuclear polymorphism (SNP) discovery and large-scale genotyping. In this study, SLAF-seq was employed to obtain sufficient markers to construct a high-density genetic map for white jute. Moreover, with the development of abundant markers, genetic dissection of fiber yield traits such as plant height was also possible. Here, we present QTLs associated with plant height that were identified using our newly constructed genetic linkage groups.

RESULTS:

An F8 population consisting of 100 lines was developed. In total, 69,446 high-quality SLAFs were detected of which 5,074 SLAFs were polymorphic; 913 polymorphic markers were used for the construction of a genetic map. The average coverage for each SLAF marker was 43-fold in the parents, and 9.8-fold in each F8 individual. A linkage map was constructed that contained 913 SLAFs on 11 linkage groups (LGs) covering 1621.4 cM with an average density of 1.61 cM per locus. Among the 11 LGs, LG1 was the largest with 210 markers, a length of 406.34 cM, and an average distance of 1.93 cM between adjacent markers. LG11 was the smallest with only 25 markers, a length of 29.66 cM, and an average distance of 1.19 cM between adjacent markers. 'SNP_only' markers accounted for 85.54% and were the predominant markers on the map. QTL mapping based on the F8 phenotypes detected 11 plant height QTLs including one major effect QTL across two cultivation locations, with each QTL accounting for 4.14-15.63% of the phenotypic variance.

CONCLUSIONS:

To our knowledge, the linkage map constructed here is the densest one available to date for white jute. This analysis also identified the first QTL in white jute. The results will provide an important platform for gene/QTL mapping, sequence assembly, genome comparisons, and marker-assisted selection breeding for white jute.

KEYWORDS:

Corchorus capsularis L; Genetic map; Plant height; QTL; SLAF

PMID:
28482802
PMCID:
PMC5421330
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-017-3712-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
Microb Pathog. 2017 Jun;107:327-334. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.04.013. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates from post-surgical wound infections.

Author information

1
PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, India.
2
PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, India. Electronic address: kmpprakash@gmail.com.
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle 1871, Ethiopia. Electronic address: saravanan.muthupandian@mu.edu.et.

Abstract

In order to investigate new effective and inexpensive nano-therapeutic approach for P. aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), the present study reports an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Corchorus Capsularis (CRCP). Formation of stable Ag-NPs at different time intervals gives mostly spherical particles with diameters ranging from 5 to 45 nm. The resulting Ag-NPs were characterized using Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). XRD study shows that the particles are crystalline in nature with face centered cubic geometry. TEM studies show the formation of Ag-NPs with average size of 20.52 nm. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized Ag-NPs was investigated against multi drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS isolates from post-surgical wound infections. The present study suggests that Ag-NPs synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of CRCP shows significant antibacterial potential against MDR isolates from post-surgical wound infections.

KEYWORDS:

Antibacterial efficacy; Corchorus Capsularis; Multi drug resistant; Silver nanoparticles; Wound infections

PMID:
28411059
DOI:
10.1016/j.micpath.2017.04.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.
Nat Plants. 2017 Jan 30;3:16223. doi: 10.1038/nplants.2016.223.

Comparative genomics of two jute species and insight into fibre biogenesis.

Author information

1
Basic and Applied Research on Jute Project, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
2
Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
3
Jute Genome Project, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
4
Advanced Studies in Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.
5
DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Limited, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
6
Elsevier, Rockville, Maryland, Missouri 63043, USA.
7
Department of Telecommunications, Dhaka 1208, Bangladesh.
8
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

Abstract

Jute (Corchorus sp.) is one of the most important sources of natural fibre, covering ∼80% of global bast fibre production1. Only Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis are commercially cultivated, though there are more than 100 Corchorus species2 in the Malvaceae family. Here we describe high-quality draft genomes of these two species and their comparisons at the functional genomics level to support tailor-designed breeding. The assemblies cover 91.6% and 82.2% of the estimated genome sizes for C. olitorius and C. capsularis, respectively. In total, 37,031 C. olitorius and 30,096 C. capsularis genes are identified, and most of the genes are validated by cDNA and RNA-seq data. Analyses of clustered gene families and gene collinearity show that jute underwent shared whole-genome duplication ∼18.66 million years (Myr) ago prior to speciation. RNA expression analysis from isolated fibre cells reveals the key regulatory and structural genes involved in fibre formation. This work expands our understanding of the molecular basis of fibre formation laying the foundation for the genetic improvement of jute.

PMID:
28134914
DOI:
10.1038/nplants.2016.223
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.
Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 4;7:39984. doi: 10.1038/srep39984.

Modification of Monolignol Biosynthetic Pathway in Jute: Different Gene, Different Consequence.

Author information

1
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
2
Dept. Plant Biotechnology IRNAS-CSIC P.O. Box 1052, 41080-Seville, Spain.
3
Plant RNAi Biology Group, International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi-11006, India.

Abstract

Lignin, a cross-linked macromolecule of hydrophobic aromatic structure, provides additional rigidity to a plant cell wall. Although it is an integral part of the plant cell, presence of lignin considerably reduces the quality of the fiber of fiber-yielding plants. Decreasing lignin in such plants holds significant commercial and environmental potential. This study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute-a fiber crop, by introducing hpRNA-based vectors for downregulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes- cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT). Transgenic generations, analyzed through Southern, RT-PCR and northern assays showed downregulation of the selected genes. Transgenic lines exhibited reduced level of gene expression with ~ 16-25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin for the whole stem and ~13-14% reduction in fiber lignin content compared to the control lines. Among the two transgenic plant types one exhibited an increase in cellulose content and concomitant improvement of glucose release. Composition of the lignin building blocks was found to alter and this alteration resulted in a pattern, different from other plants where the same genes were manipulated. It is expected that successful COMT-hpRNA and C4H-hpRNA transgenesis in jute will have far-reaching commercial implications leading to product diversification and value addition.

PMID:
28051165
PMCID:
PMC5209690
DOI:
10.1038/srep39984
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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12.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016 Oct 14;17(1):46.

Study of arsenic accumulation in rice and evaluation of protective effects of Chorchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in Wistar albino rats.

Author information

1
Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, 4331, Bangladesh.
2
Phytochemistry Research Division, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Chittagong, Bangladesh.
3
Department of Pathology, Chittagong Medical College (CMC), Chittagong, Bangladesh.
4
Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, 4331, Bangladesh. alforkangeb@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the present study, we investigated the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. Besides, we also evaluated the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in animal model.

METHODS:

A pot experiment was conducted with arsenic amended irrigation water (0.0, 25.0, 50.0 and 75.0 mg/L As) to investigate the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice. In order to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves, twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into four different groups. The control group (Group-I) was supplied with normal laboratory pellets while groups II, III, and IV received normal laboratory pellets supplemented with arsenic contaminated rice, C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %), arsenic contaminated rice plus C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %) respectively. Different haematological parameters and serum indices were analyzed to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic intoxication. To gather more supportive evidences of Corchorus olitorius potentiality against arsenic intoxication, histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, spleen and heart tissues was also performed.

RESULTS:

From the pot experiment, we have found a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase of arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice with the increase of arsenic concentrations in irrigation water and the trend of accumulation was found as root > straw > husk > grain. Another part of the experiment revealed that supplementation of C. olitorius leaves with arsenic contaminated rice significantly (p < 0.05) restored the altered haematological parameters and other serum indices towards the normal values. Arsenic deposition pattern on different organs and histological studies on the ultrastructural changes of liver, kidneys, spleen and heart also supported the protective roles of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities.

CONCLUSION:

Arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice increased dose-dependently. Hence, for irrigation purpose arsenic contaminated water cannot be used. Furthermore, arsenic contaminated rice induced several toxicities in animal model, most of which could be minimized with the food supplementation of Corchorus olitorius leaves. Therefore, Corchorus olitorius can be used as a potential food supplement to the affected people of arsenic prone zone to ensure the food security.

KEYWORDS:

Accumulation; Arsenic; Corchorus olitorius; Protective; Rice

PMID:
27737708
PMCID:
PMC5064892
DOI:
10.1186/s40360-016-0091-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016 Aug 1;26(15):3404-10. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.06.058. Epub 2016 Jun 25.

Polyphenolic compounds with anti-tumour potential from Corchorus olitorius (L.) Tiliaceae, a Nigerian leaf vegetable.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address: bamit@oauife.edu.ng.
2
Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.
3
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
4
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address: a.fatokun@bradford.ac.uk.

Abstract

Chromatographic fractionation of the methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius (L.) (Tiliaceae), on silica gel yielded two polyphenolic compounds. The structures of the compounds were elucidated as Methyl-1,4,5-tri-O-caffeoyl quinate and trans-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylic anhydride, based on extensive use of spectroscopic techniques such as (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC, HMBC), IR and MS. To establish an initial proof-of-concept for the biological relevance of these compounds, their cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines HeLa, HL460 and PC3, which might indicate their anti-tumour potential, was assessed. The compounds when tested at a range of concentrations up to 1.6mM were found to possess mild cytotoxic activity which was significant against HeLa cells at ⩾800μM. The trans-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyl phenyl)acrylic anhydride was found to be related to curcumin, a compound known to have anti-cancer activity. Docking of each of the two compounds and also of curcumin into some molecular targets implicated in tumourigenesis revealed that the three compounds had binding affinities that were superior to those obtained for the co-crystallized inhibitors of metalloproteinase-9, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The plant Corchorus olitorius therefore represents a potential source of natural 'lead' compounds with anti-tumour potential.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeoyl quinate; Corchorus olitorius; Cytotoxicity; Ferrulic anhydride; Tiliaceae

PMID:
27381082
DOI:
10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.06.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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14.
J Sci Food Agric. 2017 Mar;97(4):1212-1219. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7852. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Physicochemical, agronomical and microbiological evaluation of alternative growing media for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.) microgreens.

Author information

1
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy.
2
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, South West Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL 34142, USA.
3
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Peat-based mixes and synthetic mats are the main substrates used for microgreens production. However, both are expensive and non-renewable. Recycled fibrous materials may represent low-cost and renewable alternative substrates. Recycled textile-fiber (TF; polyester, cotton and polyurethane traces) and jute-kenaf-fiber (JKF; 85% jute, 15% kenaf-fibers) mats were characterized and compared with peat and Sure to Grow® (Sure to Grow, Beachwood, OH, USA; http://suretogrow.com) (STG; 100% polyethylene-terephthalate) for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.; Broccoletto group) microgreens.

RESULTS:

All substrates had suitable physicochemical properties for the production of microgreens. On average, microgreens fresh yield was 1502 g m-2 in peat, TF and JKF, and was 13.1% lower with STG. Peat-grown microgreen shoots had a higher concentration of K+ and SO42- and a two-fold higher NO3- concentration [1959 versus 940 mg kg-1 fresh weight (FW)] than those grown on STG, TF and JKF. At harvest, substrates did not influence microgreens aerobic bacterial populations (log 6.48 CFU g-1 FW). Peat- and JKF-grown microgreens had higher yeast-mould counts than TF- and STG microgreens (log 2.64 versus 1.80 CFU g-1 FW). Peat-grown microgreens had the highest population of Enterobacteriaceae (log 5.46 ± 0.82 CFU g-1 ) and Escherichia coli (log 1.46 ± 0.15 CFU g-1 ). Escherichia coli was not detected in microgreens grown on other media.

CONCLUSION:

TF and JKF may be valid alternatives to peat and STG because both ensured a competitive yield, low nitrate content and a similar or higher microbiological quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

KEYWORDS:

Brassica rapa L; Enterobacteriaceae; Escherichia coli; broccoli raab microgreens; peat alternative; recycled fibrous materials

PMID:
27311947
DOI:
10.1002/jsfa.7852
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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15.
J Med Food. 2016 May;19(5):457-65. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2015.0116.

Potassium Dichromate Toxicities: Protective Effect of Methanol Extract of Corchorus olitorius in Albino Rats.

Author information

1
1 Cancer Research and Molecular Biology Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan , Ibadan, Nigeria .
2
2 Department of Chemical Sciences, Bells University of Technology , Ota, Nigeria .
3
3 Department of Sciences Laboratory Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic , Abeokuta, Nigeria .
4
4 Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan , Ibadan, Nigeria .
5
5 Department of Public Health, City University of New York , New York, USA.

Abstract

Exposure to hexavalent chromate compounds such as other human carcinogens is unavoidable in the developing countries of the world. Research efforts are being directed toward minimizing exposure to them, intercepting their activity in vivo, and/or prophylaxis. The present study therefore evaluates the effect of methanol extract of the leafy vegetable, Corchorus olitorius (MECO), against potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced toxicities. Negative control animals were fed distilled water, while the positive control rats received 12 mg/kg body weight K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks. Test rats were exposed daily to 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight MECO alone for 6 weeks and 12 mg/kg body weight of K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks before sacrifice. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs) was monitored in bone marrow cells, while induction of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine levels, and hematological parameters were assessed in the plasma. The phytochemical analysis of MECO was also carried out. K2Cr2O7 significantly (P < .05) increased the levels of mPCEs, AST, ALT, creatinine, total white blood cells, and lymphocytes compared with the control. The percentage pack cell volume and neutrophils were, however, reduced. In contrast, MECO at different doses restored the markers toward the levels of the negative control. MECO is rich in flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and phenols, and they might be responsible for the protective effect observed in this study. Our results suggest that MECO has a promising potential in the treatment/management of chromate-induced toxicities.

KEYWORDS:

creatinine; haematological parameters; hepatoprotection; hexavalent chromate; liver function markers; micronucleus; urea

PMID:
27152977
DOI:
10.1089/jmf.2015.0116
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
16.
Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 28;6:25179. doi: 10.1038/srep25179.

Colletotrichum species associated with jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) anthracnose in southeastern China.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, PR China.
2
Key Laboratory for Control of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Environment &Plant Protection, Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Haikou 571100, China.
3
Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410205, China.

Abstract

Anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species of fungi, is one of the most serious diseases affecting jute in China. The disease causes chlorotic regions with black brown sunken necrotic pits on the surfaces of stems. In late stages of disease, plants undergo defoliation, dieback and blight, which make anthracnose a major threat to jute fiber production and quality in China. In this study, 7 strains of Colletotrichum fungi were isolated from diseased jute stems from Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and Henan plantations in China. Multi-locus sequence (ACT, TUB2, CAL, GS, GAPDH and ITS) analysis coupled with morphological assessment revealed that C. fructicola, C. siamense and C. corchorum-capsularis sp. nov. were associated with jute anthracnose in southeastern China. C. fructicola and C. siamense were previously not associated with jute anthracnose. C. corchorum-capsularis is a new species formally described here. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that all species can infect jute, causing anthracnose, however the virulence of the 3 species differed. This report is the first associating these three species with jute disease worldwide and is the first description of the pathogens responsible for jute anthracnose in China.

PMID:
27121760
PMCID:
PMC4848545
DOI:
10.1038/srep25179
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Aug;23(15):15418-31. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-6718-x. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Vermiremediation of toxic jute mill waste employing Metaphire posthuma.

Author information

1
Soil & Agro Bio-engineering Lab, Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Tezpur, 784028, Assam, India.
2
Soil & Agro Bio-engineering Lab, Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Tezpur, 784028, Assam, India. satya72@tezu.ernet.in.

Abstract

India has a giant jute-producing basket which produces considerable quantity of toxic jute mill waste (JMW). Conversely, report on usability potential of JMW is rather scanty. The present study illustrates the efficiency of vermicomposting in bioconversion of JMW for agricultural use. Various combinations of JMW, cow dung, and vegetable waste were fed to Metaphire posthuma in vermireactors. Rapid increment of earthworm count, body weight, and cocoon production was evidenced. Total organic carbon and pH reduction was noteworthy, but N, P, and K availability, formation of stable humic acid C, fulvic acid C, and microbial biomass C substantially increased due to vermicomposting. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed a higher stability of vermicomposted JMW over the composted product. A significant decline in heavy metal concentration (Cr, Pb, Fe, and Zn) in the vermicomposted JMW further establishes the potential of vermicomposting with M. posthuma in successful conversion of the toxic JMW into valuable product.

KEYWORDS:

Jute waste; Metal remediation; Metaphire posthuma; Seed viability; Vermicomposting

PMID:
27117148
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-016-6718-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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18.
Food Funct. 2016 Feb;7(2):1103-10. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01227a.

The type of fortificant and the leaf matrix both influence iron and zinc bioaccessibility in iron-fortified green leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso.

Author information

1
IRD, UMR 204 Nutripass (Food and Nutrition Research in the Global South), IRD/Université de Montpellier/Supagro, Montpellier, France. christele.verniere@ird.fr.

Abstract

Leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso were assessed as a potential vehicle for food fortification. First, iron and zinc bioaccessibility were measured by dialysability method in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces and in traditional whole dishes consisting of maize paste plus leafy vegetable sauces. Iron dialysability and solubility were higher in amaranth than in Jew's mallow sauce, pointing to a marked effect of the matrix. Iron dialysability was hardly affected by the maize paste contrary to zinc dialysability, which was reduced. Second, iron and zinc bioaccessibility was assessed in the same sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA or iron sulfate. Added iron, i.e. iron supplied by fortification, represented 60% of total iron at the low fortification level and 80% at high level. In amaranth sauces with the high level of fortification using NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate, fractional dialysable iron reached respectively 66% and 26% compared to only 8.1% in the unfortified sauce. Similarly, in Jew's mallow sauces, fractional dialysable iron was 57% and 5% respectively with NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate and less than 1% in the unfortified sauce. Concomitantly, fractional dialysable zinc increased by respectively 20% and 40% in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA whereas it remained unchanged with iron sulfate. Iron fortification could be an efficient way to greatly increase the available iron content of green leafy vegetable sauces and for this purpose NaFeEDTA is more effective than iron sulfate whatever the food matrix.

PMID:
26787350
DOI:
10.1039/c5fo01227a
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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19.
BMC Genomics. 2015 Dec 15;16:1062. doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-2256-z.

De novo transcriptome sequence and identification of major bast-related genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.).

Author information

1
Key Laboratory for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Ministry of Education / College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. zhang_liwu@hotmail.com.
2
Department of Plant Biology, University of Illlinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. zhang_liwu@hotmail.com.
3
Department of Plant Biology, University of Illlinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. rming@life.illinois.edu.
4
Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, Haixia Institute of Science and Technology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. rming@life.illinois.edu.
5
Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, Haixia Institute of Science and Technology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. zjisen@gmail.com.
6
Key Laboratory for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Ministry of Education / College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. 281770126@qq.com.
7
Key Laboratory for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Ministry of Education / College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. 492566513@qq.com.
8
Key Laboratory for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Ministry of Education / College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. qijm863@163.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Jute fiber, extracted from stem bast, is called golden fiber. It is essential for fiber improvement to discover the genes associated with jute development at the vegetative growth stage. However, only 858 EST sequences of jute were deposited in the GenBank database. Obviously, the public available data is far from sufficient to understand the molecular mechanism of the fiber biosynthesis. It is imperative to conduct transcriptomic sequence for jute, which can be used for the discovery of a number of new genes, especially genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis.

RESULTS:

A total of 79,754,600 clean reads (7.98 Gb) were generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing. De novo assembly yielded 48,914 unigenes with an average length of 903 bp. By sequence similarity searching for known proteins, 27,962 (57.16 %) unigenes were annotated for their function. Out of these annotated unigenes, 21,856 and 11,190 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) and euKaryotic Ortholog Groups (KOG), respectively. Searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) indicated that 14,216 unigenes were mapped to 268 KEGG pathways. Moreover, 5 Susy, 3 UGPase, 9 CesA, 18 CSL, 2 Kor (Korrigan), and 12 Cobra unigenes involving in cellulose biosynthesis were identified. Among these unigenes, the unigenes of comp11264_c0 (SuSy), comp24568_c0 (UGPase), comp11363_c0 (CesA), comp11363_c1 (CesA), comp24217_c0 (CesA), and comp23531_c0 (CesA), displayed relatively high expression level in stem bast using FPKM and RT-qPCR, indicating that they may have potential value of dissecting mechanism on cellulose biosynthesis in jute. In addition, a total of 12,518 putative gene-associate SNPs were called from these assembled uingenes.

CONCLUSION:

We characterized the transcriptome of jute, discovered a broad survey of unigenes associated with vegetative growth and development, developed large-scale SNPs, and analyzed the expression patterns of genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis for bast fiber. All these provides a valuable genomics resource, which will accelerate the understanding of the mechanism of fiber development in jute.

PMID:
26666317
PMCID:
PMC4678609
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-015-2256-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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20.
Acta Pol Pharm. 2015 Mar-Apr;72(2):329-34.

PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

Abstract

Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts.

PMID:
26642683
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
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