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BMJ Open. 2015 Aug 11;5(8):e008808. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008808.

Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium.

Author information

1
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Department of Primary Care and Population Health, UCL, London, UK.
2
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) at the University of Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies and School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
3
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Forensic Department, Research Centre Bröset, St Olav's University Hospital Trondheim, Trondheim, Norway.
4
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Department of Endocrinology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
5
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, The Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
6
Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
7
Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
8
Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.
9
Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
10
Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
11
Department of Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
12
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
13
Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Population, Policy and Practice, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK.
14
Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Netherlands Consortium of Healthy Ageing, Leiden, The Netherlands.
15
Research Centre for Prevention and Health, the Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark.
16
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
17
Department of Biological Psychology, Netherlands Twin Register, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
18
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
19
Department of Primary Care and Population Health, UCL, London, UK.
20
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
21
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, UK Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland The Medical and Population Genomics Program, The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
22
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
23
Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
24
Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
25
MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at UCL, London, UK.
26
Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
27
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) at the University of Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
28
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
29
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro, UK Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.
30
Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.
31
Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.
32
Institute for Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
33
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
34
University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
35
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Vasa Central Hospital, Vasa, Finland.
36
Population Health Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK.
37
Research Centre for Prevention and Health, the Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark. Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
38
Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
39
Population, Policy and Practice, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK.
40
Population, Policy and Practice, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health Sciences and Sansom Institute of Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
41
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland Department of Children and Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
42
Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
43
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
44
Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
45
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
46
Division of Population Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.
47
Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
48
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
49
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) at the University of Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederikberg Hospitals, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.
50
Faculty of Medicine, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glasgow, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity.

DESIGN:

Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes.

PARTICIPANTS:

148,731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥ 16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA).

PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:

Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio.

RESULTS:

The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by -0.40% (95% CI -0.57% to -0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being -0.31% (95% CI -0.42% to -0.19), -0.08% (-0.19% to 0.03%) and -0.74% (-0.96% to -0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (-0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (-0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele.

CONCLUSIONS:

For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity.

KEYWORDS:

EPIDEMIOLOGY; GENETICS

PMID:
26264275
PMCID:
PMC4538266
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008808
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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