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Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 13;9(1):16692. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53094-5.

Bioactive coating of zirconia toughened alumina ceramic implants improves cancellous osseointegration.

Author information

1
Julius Wolff Institut, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany. annemarie.pobloth@gmail.com.
2
Julius Wolff Institut, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany.
3
Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany.
4
Institut für Pathologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.
5
Clinic of Orthopedics and Sports Orthopedics, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, D-81675, München, Germany.
6
Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 6, 91058, Erlangen, Germany.
7
Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

Bioactive coatings have the potential to improve the bony integration of mechanically loaded orthopedic ceramic implants. Using the concept of mimicking the natural bone surface, four different coatings of varying thickness on a zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramic implant were investigated regarding their osseointegration in a drill-hole model in sheep. The hypothesis that a bioactive coating of ZTA ceramics would facilitate cancellous bone integration was investigated. The bioactive coatings consisted of either a layer of covalently bound multi phosphonate molecules (chemical modification = CM), a nano hydoxyapatite coating (HA), or two different bioactive glass (BG) coatings in micrometer thickness, forming a hydroxyl-carbonate apatite layer on the implant surface in vivo (dip-coated 45S5 = DipBG; sol-gel 70S30C = SGBG). Coated surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After 12 weeks, osseointegration was evaluated via mechanical push-out testing and histology. HA enhanced the maximum push-out force (HA: mean 3573.85 ± 1119.91 N; SGBG: mean 1691.57 ± 986.76 N; p = 0.046), adhesive shear strength (HA: mean 9.82 ± 2.89 MPA; SGBG: mean 4.57 ± 2.65 MPA; p = 0.025), and energy release rate (HA: mean 3821.95 ± 1474.13 J/mm2; SGBG: mean 1558.47 ± 923.47 J/mm2; p = 0.032) compared to SGBG. The implant-bone interfacial stiffness increased by CM compared to SGBG coating (CM: mean 6258.06 ± 603.80 N/mm; SGBG: mean 3565.57 ± 1705.31 n/mm; p = 0.038). Reduced mechanical osseointegration of SGBG coated implants could be explained histologically by a foreign body reaction surrounding the implants.

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