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Biomed Mater. 2019 Aug 6. doi: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab38c6. [Epub ahead of print]

Integrated additive design and manufacturing approach for the bioengineering of bone scaffolds for favorable mechanical and biological properties.

Author information

1
Technical University of Munich, Munchen, 80333, GERMANY.
2
Department of Applied Mathematics, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, GERMANY.
3
Clinic of Orthopaedics and Sports Orthopaedics, Technical University of Munich Hospital Rechts der Isar, Munchen, Bayern, GERMANY.
4
3. Clinic of Orthopaedics and Sports Orthopaedics, Technical University of Munich Hospital Rechts der Isar, Munchen, Bayern, GERMANY.
5
Institute of Bioanalysis, Hochschule Coburg, Coburg, Bayern, GERMANY.
6
Julius Wolff Institute, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GERMANY.
7
Experimental Trauma Surgery, Technical University of Munich Hospital Rechts der Isar, Munchen, Bayern, GERMANY.
8
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, 13353, GERMANY.

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) presents the possibility of personalized bone scaffolds with unprecedented structural and functional designs. In contrast to the earlier conventional design concepts, e.g., raster-angle, a workflow was established to produce scaffolds with triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) architecture. A core challenge is the realization of such structures using melt-extrusion based 3D printing. This study presents methods for generation of scaffold design files, finite element analysis of scaffold Young's moduli, AM of scaffolds with polycaprolactone (PCL), and a customized in vitro assay to evaluate cell migration. The reliability of FE analysis when using computer-aided designed models as input may be impeded by anomalies introduced into the scaffolds during 3D printing. Further investigation using micro-computed tomography reconstructions of printed scaffolds as an input for numerical simulation in comparison to experimentally obtained scaffold Young's moduli showed a moderate trend (R2 = 0.62). Interestingly, in a preliminary cell migration assay, adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AdMSC) migrated furthest on PCL scaffolds with Diamond, followed by Gyroid and Schwarz P architectures. A similar trend, but with an accelerated AdMSC migration rate, was observed for PCL scaffolds surface coated with calcium-phosphate-based apatite. We elaborate on the importance of start-to-finish integration of all steps of AM, i.e. design, engineering and manufacturing. Using such a workflow, specific biological and mechanical functionality, e.g., improved regeneration via enhanced cell migration and higher structural integrity, may be realized for scaffolds intended as temporary guiding structures for endogenous tissue regeneration.

KEYWORDS:

Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells; Biomechanical Testing; Cell Migration; Finite Element Simulation; Polycaprolactone; Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces

PMID:
31387088
DOI:
10.1088/1748-605X/ab38c6

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