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Vet Res. 2019 Jan 7;50(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s13567-018-0620-0.

CD4: a vital player in the teleost fish immune system.

Author information

1
Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.
2
Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria. mansour.el-matbouli@vetmeduni.ac.at.

Abstract

CD4 is a nonpolymorphic transmembrane glycoprotein molecule that is expressed on the surface of T-helper cells and plays an essential role in the immune response. It functions as a coreceptor with the T-cell receptor by binding to major histocompatibility complex class II on the surface of dendritic cells that present antigens. CD4+ T cells hold a key position in coordinating the immune system through production of several cytokines after activation and differentiation. The CD4+ T helper subtypes (T-helper 1, T-helper 2, T-helper 17, T-helper 9, and regulatory-T cells) perform different immune functions subsequent to their differentiation from the naive T cells. Different types of CD4+ T cells require different cytokines such as drivers and effectors, as well as master transcription factors for their activation. Fish cells that express CD4-related genes are activated in the presence of a pathogen and release cytokines against the pathogen. This review highlights the types of CD4+ T cells in fish and describes their direct role in cell-mediated and humoral immunity for protection against the intracellular bacterial as well as viral infections in fish.

PMID:
30616664
PMCID:
PMC6323851
DOI:
10.1186/s13567-018-0620-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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