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Metallomics. 2017 Dec 1;9(12):1676-1692. doi: 10.1039/c7mt00241f. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Linking iron-deficiency with allergy: role of molecular allergens and the microbiome.

Author information

1
Department of Comparative Medicine, at the Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University of Vienna and University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Franziska.roth-walter@meduniwien.ac.at.
2
Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas (CBGP, UPM-INIA), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) - Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Campus de Montegancedo-UPM, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain.
3
Department of Comparative Medicine, at the Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University of Vienna and University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Franziska.roth-walter@meduniwien.ac.at and Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

Atopic individuals tend to develop a Th2 dominant immune response, resulting in hyperresponsiveness to harmless antigens, termed allergens. In the last decade, epidemiological studies have emerged that connected allergy with a deficient iron-status. Immune activation under iron-deficient conditions results in the expansion of Th2-, but not Th1 cells, can induce class-switching in B-cells and hampers the proper activation of M2, but not M1 macrophages. Moreover, many allergens, in particular with the lipocalin and lipocalin-like folds, seem to be capable of binding iron indirectly via siderophores harboring catechol moieties. The resulting locally restricted iron-deficiency may then lead during immune activation to the generation of Th2-cells and thus prepare for allergic sensitization. Moreover, iron-chelators seem to also influence clinical reactivity: mast cells accumulate iron before degranulation and seem to respond differently depending on the type of the encountered siderophore. Whereas deferoxamine triggers degranulation of connective tissue-type mast cells, catechol-based siderophores reduce activation and degranulation and improve clinical symptoms. Considering the complex interplay of iron, siderophores and immune molecules, it remains to be determined whether iron-deficiencies are the cause or the result of allergy.

PMID:
29120476
DOI:
10.1039/c7mt00241f
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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