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Trends Parasitol. 2018 Jan;34(1):41-52. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2017 Oct 4.

The 3Rs Concept: Time to Change How We Evaluate the Efficacy of Anthelmintics in Companion Animals.

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University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100 Teramo, Italy. Electronic address:
Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Parasitology, Vetmeduni Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Wien, Austria.


Experimental infections are required by current guidelines for investigating the efficacy of anthelmintics in dogs and cats. Recently, alternatives to experimental infections and the sacrificing of research dogs and cats have been evaluated, and novel conceptual investigations and methods of examination have been explored. Several of these approaches could potentially be used in efficacy studies for anthelmintics in dogs and cats. Here, we provide food for thought towards using new tools for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in companion animals, for promoting the value of field trials, and for updating the existing guidelines for the efficacy testing of anthelmintics in dogs and cats.

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