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Toxicol Lett. 2017 Aug 5;277:69-75. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.06.002. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Daily uptake of mycotoxins - TDI might not be protective for nursed infants.

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Leibniz Institut für Arbeitsforschung an der TU Dortmund (IfADo), Ardeystrasse 67, D-44139 Dortmund, Germany.
Federal Environment Agency, Schichauweg 58, 12307 Berlin, Germany.
Institute of Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz, Germany.
Institute for Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:


Exclusive breast feeding is recommended by international bodies for the first six months of life. Because of the presence of contaminants, breast feeding might lead to toxicologically relevant exposure of the nursed child. Exposure towards mycotoxins is of specific interest because of their widespread occurrence in food and of their toxicological profile. We calculated the relationship between maternal intake at the level of the existing TDIs and the exposure in the nursed infants of several mycotoxins to evaluate whether maternal exposure at the TDI is also safe for the nursed infant. If published information was not available we used in silico methods for estimating toxicokinetic parameters and the lactational transfer. A single dose and a continuous daily intake scenario were considered. Maternal intake at the TDI exceeds the age-adjusted TDI (TDI/3) values for infants in case of deoxynivalenol and patulin in the single dose scenario. Exceedance is particularly pronounced for ochratoxin A in the continuous daily intake scenario (29.2 fold above the child adjusted TDI). According to published data in infants impaired kidney function may result from this exceedance. When setting a TDI, the safety of the exclusively nursed infant should be considered in the continuous daily intake scenario.


Breast milk; Infants; Mycotoxins; Tolerable daily intake

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