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PLoS One. 2016 Jul 21;11(7):e0158039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158039. eCollection 2016.

Sepsis Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli: Comparison of Severity of Sepsis, Delay of Anti-Infective Therapy and ESBL Genotype.

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Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, National Reference Center for the Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections, Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 27, 12203 Berlin, Germany.
Friedrich Loffler Institute of Medical Microbiology, Universitaetsmedizin Greifswald, Martin-Luther-Str.6, 17475, Greifswald, Germany.
Robert Koch Institute, FG13 Nosocomial Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance, 38855, Wernigerode, Germany.
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203, Berlin, Germany.


Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are associated with increased mortality. Outcome differences due to various species of ESBL-E or ESBL genotypes are not well investigated. We conducted a cohort study to assess risk factors for mortality in cases of ESBL-E bacteremia (K. pneumoniae or E. coli) and the risk factors for sepsis with organ failure. All consecutive patients of our institution from 2008 to 2011 with bacteremia due to ESBL-E were included. Basic epidemiological data, underlying comorbidities, origin of bacteremia, severity of sepsis and delay of appropriate anti-infective treatment were collected. Isolates were PCR-screened for the presence of ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases. Cox proportional hazard regression on mortality and multivariable logistic regression on risk factors for sepsis with organ failure was conducted. 219 cases were included in the analysis: 73.1% due to E. coli, 26.9% due to K. pneumoniae. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (ESBL-E. coli, 23.8% vs. ESBL-K. pneumoniae 27.1%, p = 0.724). However, the risk of sepsis with organ failure was associated in cases of K. pneumoniae bacteremia (OR 4.5, p<0.001) and patients with liver disease (OR 3.4, p = 0.004) or renal disease (OR 6.8, p<0.001). We found significant differences in clinical presentation of ESBL-E bacteremia due to K. pneumoniae compared to E. coli. As K. pneumoniae cases showed a more serious clinical presentation as E. coli cases and were associated with different risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies should be adjusted accordingly.

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