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Int J Nurs Stud. 2016 Apr;56:37-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.01.003. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Dry skin in nursing care receivers: A multi-centre cross-sectional prevalence study in hospitals and nursing homes.

Author information

1
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Clinical Research Center for Hair and Skin Science, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany. Electronic address: andrea.lichterfeld@charite.de.
2
Institute of Health and Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
3
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Clinical Research Center for Hair and Skin Science, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Maintaining and improving skin health of patients and long-term care receivers is a widely agreed upon goal in health and nursing care. Care dependent and aged persons have a high predisposition to develop dry skin conditions.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of skin dryness in hospitals and nursing homes and to identify person- and health-related variables associated with this skin condition.

DESIGN:

The study was part of a bigger annual multicentre descriptive cross-sectional prevalence study of health problems.

SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS:

Fourteen nursing homes and six hospitals in Germany participated in this study in 2014. A total of 1710 subjects (n=1091 long-term care residents and n=619 in-patients) were included.

METHODS:

Skin assessments were conducted and skin dryness was measured using the Overall Dry Skin Score. Mobility was measured using the respective item of the Care Dependency Scale. Demographic, functional and physiological parameters were compared between subjects with and without dry skin. A logistic regression model predicting skin dryness was created.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of skin dryness was 48.8% (95% CI 46.5-51.2). Nursing home residents were most often affected (52.6%; 95% CI 49.6-55.6) compared to in-patients (42.2%; 95% CI 38.3-46.1). The skin of feet and legs were most often affected by skin dryness (42.9%) compared to other skin areas. Being older (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.01-1.02), having pruritus (OR 14.21; 95% CI 8.00-22.95), oncological (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.30-2.91), musculoskeletal diseases (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.04-1.64), being skin care independent (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.32-0.70) were the strongest covariates for the presence of dry skin in the multivariate model.

CONCLUSIONS:

Based on a large sample results indicate that approximately every second nursing home resident and hospital in-patient are affected by dry skin. Severe forms occur more often in hospital in-patients compared to nursing home residents. Skin care interventions to tackle dry skin are recommended particularly for hospital patients and nursing home residents who are affected by pruritus or oncological diseases, who are in need of washing/bathing assistance, and who have musculoskeletal diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Dry skin; Epidemiology; Hospital; Long-term care; Nursing; Prevalence; Risk

PMID:
26810458
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.01.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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