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Int J Pharm. 2015 Jun 20;487(1-2):39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.03.063. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Electrophoretic mobility as a tool to separate immune adjuvant saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

Author information

1
Institut für Laboratoriumsmedizin, Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.
2
Institut für Pharmazie-Pharmazeutische Biologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Straße 2+4, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
3
Institut für Laboratoriumsmedizin, Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: mayank.thakur@charite.de.

Abstract

Quillaja saponins are used as adjuvants in animal vaccines but their application in human vaccination is still under investigation. Isolation and characterization of adjuvant saponins is very tedious. Furthermore, standardization of Quillaja saponins is critical pertaining to its application in humans. In this study, a convenient method based on agarose gel electrophoresis was developed for the separation of Quillaja saponins. Six different commercial Quillaja saponins were segregated by size/charge into numerous fractions. Each of the fractions was characterized by ESI-TOF-MS spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. Real-time impedance-based monitoring and red blood cell lysis assay were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and hemolytic activities respectively. Two specific regions in the agarose gel (delimited by specific relative electrophoretic mobility values) were identified and characterized by exclusive migration of acylated saponins known to possess immune adjuvant properties (0.18-0.58), and cytotoxic and hemolytic saponins (0.18-0.94). In vivo experiments in mice with the isolated fractions for evaluation of adjuvant activity also correlated with the relative electrophoretic mobility. In addition to the separation of specific Quillaja saponins with adjuvant effects as a pre-purification step to HPLC, agarose gel electrophoresis stands out as a new method for rapid screening, separation and quality control of saponins.

KEYWORDS:

Cytotoxicity; Electrophoresis; Hemolysis; Immune adjuvant; Quillaja saponins

PMID:
25839418
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.03.063
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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