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Diabetologia. 2009 Aug;52(8):1496-503. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1408-6. Epub 2009 Jun 13.

Reducing glycaemic variability in type 1 diabetes self-management with a continuous glucose monitoring system based on wired enzyme technology.

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Kinderkrankenhaus auf der Bult, Janusz-Korczak-Allee 12, 30173 Hannover, Germany.



This study was designed to investigate the use and impact of a continuous glucose monitoring system (the FreeStyle Navigator) under home-use conditions in the self-management of type 1 diabetes.


A 20 day masked phase, when real-time data and alarms were not available, was compared with a subsequent 40 day unmasked phase for a number of specified measures of glycaemic variability. HbA(1c) (measured by DCA 2000) and a hypoglycaemia fear survey were recorded at the start and end of the study.


The study included 48 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 35.7 +/- 10.9, range 18-61 years; diabetes duration 17.0 +/- 9.5 years). Two patients did not complete the study for personal reasons. Comparing masked (all 20 days) and unmasked (last 20 days) phases, the following reductions were seen: time outside euglycaemia from 11.0 to 9.5 h/day (p = 0.002); glucose SD from 3.5 to 3.2 mmol/l (p < 0.001); hyperglycaemic time (>10.0 mmol/l) from 10.3 to 8.9 h/day (p = 0.0035); mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (peak to nadir) down by 10% (p < 0.001); high blood glucose index down by 18% (p = 0.0014); and glycaemic risk assessment diabetes equation score down by 12% (p = 0.0013). Hypoglycaemic time (<3.9 mmol/l) decreased from 0.70 to 0.64 h/day without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Mean HbA(1c) fell from 7.6 +/- 1.1% at baseline to 7.1 +/- 1.1% (p < 0.001). In the hypoglycaemia fear survey, the patients tended to take less snacks at night-time after wearing the sensor.


Home use of a continuous glucose monitoring system has a positive effect on the self-management of diabetes. Thus, continuous glucose monitoring may be a useful tool to decrease glycaemic variability.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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