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Items: 5

1.
Neuropediatrics. 2006 Jun;37(3):154-8.

Aicardi syndrome: presentation at onset in Swedish children born in 1975-2002.

Author information

1
Department of Paediatrics, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. lars.palmer@vll.se

Abstract

In a nation-wide survey of Aicardi syndrome, defined as the onset of epilepsy in the first six months of life, agenesis of the corpus callosum (partial or total) and lacunar chorioretinopathy, 18 patients, all girls, born between 1975 and 2002 were identified in Sweden. Fifteen were definite cases and three were regarded as probable, since they only fulfilled two of three inclusion criteria in addition to other cerebral malformations and/or chorioretinal changes. Calculations based on this survey and population-based studies on epilepsy in retarded children yielded a prevalence rate in the range of 2 - 15 : 100 000 girls. All but one had an ordinary birth weight, length and head circumference for gestational age. One was born preterm, one post term. The age at diagnosis varied from three days to 12 years and decreased during the period reflecting the increased awareness of the syndrome. Eleven came to medical attention because of seizures. Six had myoclonic, four generalized tonic-clonic and eight tonic, clonic or complex partial seizures. One had hypsarrhythmia, five multifocal epileptiform activity, three bilateral independent bursts, two burst-suppression pattern, six other types of spikes and one slowing of background activity. Asymmetrical EEG abnormalities indicating independent hemispheric dysfunction were detected in 13/18 (72 %). Complete absence of the corpus callosum was found in 13/18 (72 %), although not identical with the previous group, a partial defect in 3/18 (17 %), and a thinning in 2/18 (11 %). Of 15 children with definite Aicardi syndrome, 13 had binocular and two monocular lacunae. In one of the latter two, subtle monocular lacunae were found on fundus photographs, but had been missed on repeated clinical examinations. Of three children with probable Aicardi syndrome typical lacunae were reported in one and other kinds of depigmentation in the other two. Most of the children had anomalous optic discs. Neuroimaging in infancy or early childhood combined with ophthalmological examination and ocular fundus photography will facilitate an early diagnosis of Aicardi syndrome. Seizure type and EEG abnormalities may be non-specific at onset.

PMID:
16967367
DOI:
10.1055/s-2006-924486
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York
2.
Neuropediatrics. 2006 Feb;37(1):32-41.

Biphasic clinical course and early white matter abnormalities may be indicators of neurological sequelae after status epilepticus in children.

Author information

1
Division of Child Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

Abstract

Clinical course and serial neuroimaging findings are not fully described in children who have had neurological sequelae following status epilepticus. We found four patients who had neurological sequelae out of 42 children with status epilepticus in 2004. MRI studies were reviewed with specific attention to diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (3 patients). The clinical course showed biphasic; initial status epilepticus and neurological exacerbation along with seizure recurrence four to five days after onset. Within three days after initial status epilepticus, CT (all patients) and MRI (2 patients) did not show any abnormalities. From four to ten days after onset, MRI demonstrated diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter on DWI and hypointensity on ADC maps in all patients. Diffuse brain atrophy progressed thereafter. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6 was elevated in all patients. A biphasic clinical course may be a specific feature for neurological sequelae. The preferential white matter involvement on MRI and elevated CSF cytokines indicate that glial dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of status epilepticus-associated cerebral damage.

PMID:
16541366
DOI:
10.1055/s-2006-923949
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York
3.
Neuropediatrics. 2006 Feb;37(1):26-31.

Early periinsular hemispherotomy in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome and intractable epilepsy--outcome in eight patients.

Author information

1
University Children's Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. schropp_c@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Periinsular hemispherotomy is used to treat catastrophic epilepsy in hemispheric lesions. It avoids complications of tissue resection performed in other hemispherectomy procedures. We report on the effectiveness, complications, and neurological sequelae in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS).

METHODS:

Eight patients (mean age at operation 15 months, mean surveillance time 7.1 years, 5 girls) were operated between 1994 and 2000, one with additional subpial resections of the insular cortex. Preoperatively hemiparesis was evident in all patients, mental retardation in six. Charts were reviewed for pre- and perioperative data. Outcome data were collected by structured telephone interview and questionnaires.

RESULTS:

No severe complications occurred. Five patients with unilateral angiomatosis were seizure-free without medication, rare non-disabling seizures occurred in one. Two patients with bilateral angiomatosis had seizure reduction of > 90%. Hemiparesis deteriorated in all patients with a marked deficit of hand function and less severe deficit in the lower extremity and trunk. Seven became ambulatory and achieved community language. Mental development improved with seizure control. Six patients have learning disability, two are mentally handicapped.

CONCLUSION:

Periinsular hemispherotomy is a valuable treatment modality in this patient group. The sequelae of hemiparesis, hemianopsia, and developmental delay must be seen in relation to the natural course in severe SWS.

PMID:
16541365
DOI:
10.1055/s-2006-923945
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York
4.
Neuropediatrics. 2005 Dec;36(6):389-94.

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency presenting as neonatal hyperekplexia: a clinical, biochemical and genetic study.

Author information

1
Grup de Recerca en Malalties Neurometabòliques, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. amacaya@vhebron.net

Abstract

We report a newborn with exaggerated startle reactions and stiffness of neonatal onset, the prototypical signs of hyperekplexia. Startle and flexor spasms, leading to apnoea, did not respond to treatment with clonazepam but did partially to sodium valproate. Molecular analysis of GLRA1 revealed no mutations. The incidental finding of hypouricemia led to a work-up for molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) deficiency; the diagnosis was confirmed by the altered urine chemistries, including elevated urine S-sulphocysteine. Despite persistence of the spasms, clinical or electrographic seizures were never detected before the infant died at age 1 month. In this patient, the concurrence of hyperekplexia and MoCo deficiency was suggestive of impaired gephyrin function. GPH mutational analysis, however, showed no abnormalities. The patient was eventually found to harbour a novel c.1064T > C mutation in exon 8 of the MOCS1 gene. Despite extensive sequence analysis of the gene, the second causative mutation of this recessive trait still awaits identification. MoCo deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal hyperekplexia, particularly in the instances of refractoriness to clonazepam, an early demise in infancy or the evidence of no mutations in the GLRA1 gene.

PMID:
16429380
DOI:
10.1055/s-2005-872877
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York
5.
Neuropediatrics. 2005 Oct;36(5):302-8.

Seizure control and acceptance of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome: a 2- to 5-year follow-up of 15 children enrolled prospectively.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, University of Essen, Essen, Germany. joerg.klepper@uni-essen.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is caused by impaired glucose transport into the brain resulting in an epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay, and a complex motor disorder. A ketogenic diet provides an alternative fuel to the brain and effectively restores brain energy metabolism.

METHODS:

Fifteen children with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome were enrolled prospectively for a 2.0 - 5.5-year follow-up of the effectiveness of a 3 : 1 LCT ketogenic diet. Eight patients enrolled were described previously, seven patients were novel.

RESULTS:

Four novel heterozygous GLUT1 mutations were identified. 10/15 patients remained seizure-free on the ketogenic diet in monotherapy. In 2/15 patients seizures recurred after 2(1/2) years despite adequate ketosis, but were controlled by add-on ethosuximide. In one patient seizures were reduced without complete seizure control. No serious adverse effects occurred and parental satisfaction with the diet was good. 2/15 patients discontinued the diet.

CONCLUSION:

GLUT1 deficiency syndrome represents a complex childhood encephalopathy that can be treated effectively by means of a ketogenic diet. The response to the diet did not correlate to clinical, biochemical, or genetic features of the disease. In contrast to previous reports, our results indicate that epilepsy is not always completely controlled by a ketogenic diet and can recur in a subset of patients.

PMID:
16217704
DOI:
10.1055/s-2005-872843
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York

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