Send to

Choose Destination
Singapore Med J. 1996 Aug;37(4):374-7.

Severe community-acquired pneumonia in Singapore.

Author information

Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore.



There has been no previous study documenting the aetiology and prognosis of severe community-acquired pneumonia in Singapore. Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) needing admission to a medical intensive care unit in Singapore were studied retrospectively.


All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit at National University Hospital from June 1991 to February 1993 with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia were entered into the study. All patients had blood cultures, sputum cultures, serologies for Legionella and mycoplasma drawn on admission. APACHE II scores were determined prospectively.


Fifty-nine consecutive cases from June 1991 to February 1993 were identified with a mean age of 61 (SD 17) years. Nearly all the cases needed mechanical ventilation (90%) and overall mortality was 63%. An aetiological agent was identified in the majority of cases (68%), with Klebsiella pneumoniae being the most common agent (9 cases, 15%). Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified in 8% (5 cases) and 5% (3 cases) of cases respectively. Pseudomonas pseudomallei was identified in 4 cases (7%) with a 100% mortality. Overall, gram-negative organisms were identified in 47% of cases. APACHE II was significantly higher in non-survivors. Age, creatinine levels, and the presence of bacteraemia were not prognostic features.


SCAP in Singapore carries a high mortality with the predominance of gram-negative organisms. Empiric antibiotics should include gram-positive and gram-negative coverage with specific coverage for Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center