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Elife. 2016 Jun 28;5. pii: e16777. doi: 10.7554/eLife.16777.

Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, United States.
2
Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, United States.
3
Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States.
4
Laboratorio Avi-Mex, Mexico City, Mexico.
5
Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, United States.
6
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
7
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
8
Centre for Immunology, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
9
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, United States.

Abstract

Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade.

KEYWORDS:

2009 pandemic; epidemiology; evolution; global health; infectious disease; influenza A virus; microbiology; phylogeography; swine; virus; zoonosis

PMID:
27350259
PMCID:
PMC4957980
DOI:
10.7554/eLife.16777
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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