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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Aug;93(2):410-5. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0168. Epub 2015 May 26.

Introduction of Monkeypox into a Community and Household: Risk Factors and Zoonotic Reservoirs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Author information

1
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Atlanta, Georgia; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemic Intelligence Service, Atlanta, Georgia; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia; Minstere de la Santé, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Field Epidemiology Training Program, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; University of Kinshasa, Department of Biology, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; Minstere de la Santé, Tshuapa Health District, The Democratic Republic of Congo; Kinshasa School of Public Health, The Democratic Republic of Congo xdf8@cdc.gov.
2
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Atlanta, Georgia; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemic Intelligence Service, Atlanta, Georgia; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia; Minstere de la Santé, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Field Epidemiology Training Program, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; University of Kinshasa, Department of Biology, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; Minstere de la Santé, Tshuapa Health District, The Democratic Republic of Congo; Kinshasa School of Public Health, The Democratic Republic of Congo.

Abstract

An increased incidence of monkeypox (MPX) infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was noted by the regional surveillance system in October 2013. Little information exists regarding how MPX is introduced into the community and the factors associated with transmission within the household. Sixty-eight wild animals were collected and tested for Orthopoxvirus. Two of three rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.) were positive for antibodies to Orthopoxviruses; however, no increased risk was associated with the consumption or preparation of rope squirrels. A retrospective cohort investigation and a case-control investigation were performed to identify risk factors affecting the introduction of monkeypox virus (MPXV) into the community and transmission within the home. School-age males were the individuals most frequently identified as the first person infected in the household and were the group most frequently affected overall. Risk factors of acquiring MPXV in a household included sleeping in the same room or bed, or using the same plate or cup as the primary case. There was no significant risk associated with eating or processing of wild animals. Activities associated with an increased risk of MPXV transmission all have potential for virus exposure to the mucosa.

PMID:
26013374
PMCID:
PMC4530773
DOI:
10.4269/ajtmh.15-0168
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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