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Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Jul;25:122-37. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.014. Epub 2014 Mar 21.

Genotyping, evolution and epidemiological findings of Rickettsia species.

Author information

1
Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, 13005 Marseille, France.
2
Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, 13005 Marseille, France. Electronic address: didier.raoult@gmail.com.

Abstract

Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause mild to life-threatening diseases, including epidemic typhus, one of the oldest pernicious diseases of mankind. Clinical awareness of rickettsial diseases and molecular diagnosis have shown that rickettsioses should be viewed as new emerging and reemerging diseases. Rickettsia has been shown to be a large genus with a worldwide distribution, a very diverse host range, including hosts that have no relationship with vertebrate. Genomic studies have demonstrated genome reduction due to gene loss associated with increased pathogenicity and horizontal DNA acquisition according to a sympatric mode of evolution in hosts that contain several organisms. This article presents a review of genotyping techniques and examines the principle of genotype determination in terms of taxonomic strategies and detection methods. This article summarizes the epidemiological and pathological features of Rickettsia and discusses the genomic findings that help the understanding of the evolution of pathogenicity including the deleterious mutations of repair systems and the toxin-antitoxin systems.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Evolution; Genomes; Genotyping; Infectious diseases; Rickettsia

PMID:
24662440
DOI:
10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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