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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Sep 17;110(38):15325-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307356110. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

Abstract

The current biodiversity crisis encompasses a sixth mass extinction event affecting the entire class of amphibians. The infectious disease chytridiomycosis is considered one of the major drivers of global amphibian population decline and extinction and is thought to be caused by a single species of aquatic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. However, several amphibian population declines remain unexplained, among them a steep decrease in fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) that has brought this species to the edge of local extinction. Here we isolated and characterized a unique chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov., from this salamander population. This chytrid causes erosive skin disease and rapid mortality in experimentally infected fire salamanders and was present in skin lesions of salamanders found dead during the decline event. Together with the closely related B. dendrobatidis, this taxon forms a well-supported chytridiomycete clade, adapted to vertebrate hosts and highly pathogenic to amphibians. However, the lower thermal growth preference of B. salamandrivorans, compared with B. dendrobatidis, and resistance of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) to experimental infection with B. salamandrivorans suggest differential niche occupation of the two chytrid fungi.

KEYWORDS:

amphibian decline; ecosystem health; emerging infectious disease

PMID:
24003137
PMCID:
PMC3780879
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1307356110
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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