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Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Sep;16(9):1341-8. doi: 10.3201/eid1609.091800.

Recurrent Granulibacter bethesdensis infections and chronic granulomatous disease.

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National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1684, USA.


Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by frequent infections, most of which are curable. Granulibacter bethesdensis is an emerging pathogen in patients with CGD that causes fever and necrotizing lymphadenitis. However, unlike typical CGD organisms, this organism can cause relapse after clinical quiescence. To better define whether infections were newly acquired or recrudesced, we use comparative bacterial genomic hybridization to characterize 11 isolates obtained from 5 patients with CGD from North and Central America. Genomic typing showed that 3 patients had recurrent infection months to years after apparent clinical cure. Two patients were infected with the same strain as previously isolated, and 1 was infected with a genetically distinct strain. This organism is multidrug resistant, and therapy required surgery and combination antimicrobial drugs, including long-term ceftriaxone. G. bethesdensis causes necrotizing lymphadenitis in CGD, which may recur or relapse.

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