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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 May;14(5):421-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.01965.x. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

Secular changes in incidence and mortality associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Quebec, Canada, 1991-2005.

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1
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

In order to examine secular changes in the incidence and mortality associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia before and after the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), a retrospective cohort study of 815 patients with S. aureus bacteraemia was performed in the Estrie region of Quebec, Canada, between 1991 and 2005. The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality. Between 1991-1993 and 2003-2005, the proportion of cases attributed to endocarditis and pneumonia increased from 4% to 11% and from 2% to 11%, respectively, while that attributed to catheter infections decreased from 49% to 17%. MRSA was almost absent in 1991-1999, but accounted for 10% and 20% of cases in 2000-2002 and 2003-2005, respectively. The population incidence of bacteraemia caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) remained stable between 1997 and 2005, while that of MRSA increased from 0 to 7.4/100 000. Risk-factors for mortality included age, co-morbidities, female gender, residence outside the city of Sherbrooke, pneumonia (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.96-5.73) or endocarditis (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.67-5.01) as the source, and an absence of treatment. After adjusting for confounders, patients with MRSA bacteraemia had a higher mortality rate than those with MSSA bacteraemia (OR 2.21, 95% CI 0.99-4.96, p 0.053). Mortality in patients with MSSA bacteraemia was 19% (16/83) in 1991-1993, 23% (26/113) in 1994-1996, 29% (50/173) in 1997-1999, and 28% (52/185) in 2000-2002, decreasing to 15% (28/192) in 2003-2005, which impacted on the relative mortality rates of MRSA and MSSA. MRSA did not replace, but added to, an existing stable incidence of MSSA bacteraemia.

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