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Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):45-55.

Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning.

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Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles 90085-1763, USA.


Two issues concerning sensorimotor EEG operant conditioning, or biofeedback, as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of seizure disorders are the focus of this review. The first relates to the question of whether relevant physiological changes are associated with this procedure. This question is addressed through review of an extensive neurophysiological literature that is likely unfamiliar to many clinicians but that documents both immediate and sustained functional changes that are consistent with elevation of seizure thresholds. The second focuses on the clinical efficacy of this method and whether it should carry the designation of "experimental". This designation is challenged through an assessment of over 25 years of peer-reviewed research demonstrating impressive EEG and clinical results achieved with the most difficult subset of seizure patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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