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Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1999 Dec;13(4):879-900.

Oral infections and other manifestations of HIV disease.

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Department of Dental Ecology, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.


Oral lesions are important in the clinical spectrum of HIV/AIDS, arousing suspicion of acute seroconversion illness (aphthous ulceration and candidiasis), suggesting HIV infection in the undiagnosed individual (candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), indicating clinical disease progression and predicting development of AIDS (candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia), and marking immune suppression in HIV-infected individuals (candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, necrotizing periodontal disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, long-standing herpes infection, major aphthous ulcers). In addition, oral lesions are included in staging systems for HIV disease progression and as entry criteria or endpoints in clinical trials of antiretroviral drugs. Recognition and management of these oral conditions is important for the health and quality of life of the individual with HIV/AIDS. In keeping with this, the U.S. Department of Health Services Clinical Practice Guideline for Evaluation and Management of Early HIV Infection includes recommendations that an oral examination, emphasizing oral mucosal surfaces, be conducted by the primary care provider at each visit, a dental examination by a dentist should be done at least two times a year, and patients should be informed of the importance of oral care and educated about common HIV-related oral lesions and associated symptoms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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