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Res Vet Sci. 1999 Aug;67(1):47-52.

Differential production of proinflammatory cytokines in the pig lung during different respiratory virus infections: correlations with pathogenicity.

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Laboratory of Veterinary Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Salisburglaan, Merelbeke, B-9820, Belgium.


The acute stages of infection with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) and porcine reproductive-respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were shown to differ in terms of clinical and lung inflammatory effects and proinflammatory cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were inoculated intratracheally with one of the three viruses. SIV infection was followed within 1 day post inoculation (d PI) by characteristic respiratory and general signs, and excessive lung epithelial desquamation and neutrophil infiltration (38 to 56 per cent of BAL cells at 1 d PI vs 0 to 1 per cent in controls). High concentrations of bioactive interferon-alpha (IFN -alpha), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF -alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL -1) coincided with peak symptoms and neutrophil infiltration. PRCV infection was asymptomatic and produced a mild bronchointerstitial pneumonitis and neutrophil infiltration (13 to 22 per cent of BAL cells at 4 d PI). IFN -alpha titres parallelled those found during SIV infection, TNF -alpha was negligible and IL -1 undetectable. PRRSV infection induced anorexia and lethargy between 3 and 5 d PI. There was marked infiltration with mononuclear cells in alveolar septa and BAL fluids between 7 and 10 d PI, while neutrophils remained at less than 11 per cent of BAL cells at any time. IL -1 was produced from three throughout 10 d PI, while IFN -alpha production was minimal and TNF -alpha undetectable. These data strongly suggest that proinflammatory cytokines can be important mediators of viral respiratory disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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