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J Lipid Res. 1996 Mar;37(3):574-87.

Modulation of macrophage scavenger receptor transport by protein phosphorylation.

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1
Research Institute, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, CA 94301, USA.

Abstract

The identification of three highly conserved phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain of each of the monomeric subunits of the macrophage scavenger receptor suggests that protein phosphorylation may regulate this receptor pathway. To investigate this, mouse peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with either the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid or the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine to modulate cellular protein phosphorylation and their effects on the metabolism of acetyl-LDL were measured. Both okadaic acid and staurosporine inhibited the degradation of acetyl-low density lipoprotein (LDL) without affecting cellular lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The inhibition by okadaic acid was due to a 70% decrease in acetyl-LDL binding whereas post-receptor processing was minimally affected. Calyculin A, another serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, also reduced acetyl-LDL binding, whereas lithium chloride, an inositol phosphatase inhibitor, did not. Okadaic acid did not decrease steady state receptor mRNA levels nor decrease the number of total cellular receptors, consistent with a posttranslational mechanism of action. Interestingly, protease sensitivity studies showed that the receptors were still located on the cell surface. These studies suggest that okadaic acid inhibits acetyl-LDL binding by causing the redistribution of surface receptors into a sequestered compartment or inactivating the receptors. In contrast, staurosporine produced a paradoxical increase in receptor expression (30%) but slowed post-receptor processing (2.3-fold decrease). The latter was due to an inhibition of ligand internalization (2.9-fold decrease) via a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. Macrophage pinocytosis was also slowed by staurosporine (38% decrease); however, this does not appear to account for the inhibition of scavenger receptor internalization. Direct receptor phosphorylation was also slowed by staurosporine (38% decrease); however, this does not appear to account for the inhibition of scavenger receptor internalization. Direct receptor phosphorylation was also investigated and it was established that the receptor can be phosphorylated; however, changes in receptor function did not correlate with changes in the degree of receptor phosphorylation. Together these studies demonstrate that changes in cellular protein phosphorylation affect the expression, surface transport, and internalization of the macrophage scavenger receptor and suggest that the regulated phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of cellular proteins may be an important biochemical mechanism that controls normal processing of ligands by this receptor pathway.

PMID:
8728320
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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