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Am J Med. 2009 Feb;122(2):162-169.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.08.026. Epub 2008 Dec 26.

"Dose-dependent" impact of recurrent cardiac events on mortality in patients with heart failure.

Author information

1
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Ont, Canada. dlee@ices.on.ca

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The mortality impact of recurrent cardiac hospitalizations has not been delineated in community-based heart failure patients. We determined if a "dose-dependent" relationship exists between heart failure events and death, accounting for temporal changes in age, comorbidities, and disease severity.

METHODS:

Among heart failure patients in the Enhanced Feedback For Effective Cardiac Treatment Study with onset between April 1999 and March 2001, we compared long-term survival (until March 2006) in those with recurrent heart failure or cardiovascular events, relative to those free of such events.

RESULTS:

In 9138 patients, 28,442 person-years of follow-up were examined (mean age: 75.3 years, 49.6% male). Recurrent heart failure events occurred 1, 2, 3, and >or=4 times in 2352 (25.7%), 1020 (11.2%), 505 (5.5%), and 596 (6.5%) patients, respectively. Cardiovascular readmissions occurred 1, 2, 3, and >or=4 times in 2522 (27.6%), 1509 (16.5%), 975 (10.7%), and 1672 (18.3%) patients, respectively. Compared with those without recurrent heart failure events, the adjusted relative mortality rates for 1, 2, 3, and >or=4 heart failure events were 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.24-2.60), 3.00 (95% CI 2.72-3.32), 4.00 (95% CI, 3.51-4.56), and 5.16 (95% CI, 4.55-5.85), respectively. Compared with those without cardiovascular events, the adjusted relative mortality rates for 1, 2, 3, and >or=4 cardiovascular events were 3.33 (95% CI, 3.05-3.63), 4.61 (95% CI, 4.16-5.10), 6.29 (95% CI, 5.59-7.07), and 8.95 (95% CI, 8.05-9.95), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

The risk of death increases progressively and independently with each heart failure or cardiovascular event. The number of prior events predicts mortality and should be ascertained in patients with heart failure.

PMID:
19100960
DOI:
10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.08.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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