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Nature. 2017 Nov 16;551(7680):368-372. doi: 10.1038/nature24476. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
2
Institute of Archaeology, Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1097, Hungary.
3
Medical and Population Genetics Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
4
Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz 55128, Germany.
5
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
6
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
7
Móra Ferenc Museum, Szeged 6720, Hungary.
8
Herman Ottó Museum, Miskolc 3529, Hungary.
9
Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest 1088, Hungary.
10
Laczkó Dezso˝ Museum, Veszprém 8200, Hungary.
11
Balaton Museum, Keszthely 8360, Hungary.
12
Department of Archaeological Excavations and Artefact Processing, Hungarian National Museum, Budapest 1088, Hungary.
13
Jósa András Museum, Nyíregyháza 4400, Hungary.
14
Déri Museum, Debrecen 4026, Hungary.
15
Department of Biological Anthropology, Szeged University, Szeged 6726, Hungary.
16
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, University of Pécs, Pécs 7624, Hungary.
17
Imaging Center for Life and Material Sciences, University of Pécs, Pécs 7624, Hungary.
18
Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, Pécs 7624, Hungary.
19
PTE-MTA Human Reproduction Research Group, Pécs 7624, Hungary.
20
Department of Medical Genetics and Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, Pécs 7624, Hungary.
21
Dobó István Castle Museum, Eger 3300, Hungary.
22
Department of Geography, Prehistory, and Archaeology, University of the Basque Country, Investigation Group IT622-13, Vitoria-Gasteiz 01006, Spain.
23
CRONOS SC, Burgos 09007, Spain.
24
Department of Prehistoric Archaeology, Free University of Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany.
25
Curt-Engelhorn-Centre Archaeometry gGmbH, Mannheim 68159, Germany.
26
Commission for Westphalian Antiquities, Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association, 48157 Münster, Germany.
27
State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Heritage Museum, Halle 06114, Germany.
28
Environment Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
29
Romano-Germanic Commission, German Archaeological Institute, Frankfurt am Main 60325, Germany.
30
Center of Natural and Cultural History of Man, Danube Private University, Krems-Stein 3500, Austria.
31
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Allschwil 4123, Switzerland.
32
Institute for Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science, University of Basel, Basel 4055, Switzerland.
33
Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-UPF), Barcelona 08003, Spain.
34
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany.

Abstract

Ancient DNA studies have established that Neolithic European populations were descended from Anatolian migrants who received a limited amount of admixture from resident hunter-gatherers. Many open questions remain, however, about the spatial and temporal dynamics of population interactions and admixture during the Neolithic period. Here we investigate the population dynamics of Neolithization across Europe using a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with a total of 180 samples, of which 130 are newly reported here, from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods of Hungary (6000-2900 bc, n = 100), Germany (5500-3000 bc, n = 42) and Spain (5500-2200 bc, n = 38). We find that genetic diversity was shaped predominantly by local processes, with varied sources and proportions of hunter-gatherer ancestry among the three regions and through time. Admixture between groups with different ancestry profiles was pervasive and resulted in observable population transformation across almost all cultural transitions. Our results shed new light on the ways in which gene flow reshaped European populations throughout the Neolithic period and demonstrate the potential of time-series-based sampling and modelling approaches to elucidate multiple dimensions of historical population interactions.

PMID:
29144465
DOI:
10.1038/nature24476
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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