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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jun 21;113(25):6886-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523951113. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans.

Author information

1
Palaeogenetics Group, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany;
2
Department of Genetics, Evolution, and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom;
3
Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland;
4
Molecular Population Genetics, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland;
5
Palaeogenetics Group, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany; Molecular Population Genetics, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland;
6
Faculty of Philosophy, School of History and Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece;
7
Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4ET, United Kingdom;
8
Honorary Ephor of Antiquities, Hellenic Ministry of Culture & Sports, 106 82 Athens, Greece;
9
Department of History and Ethnology, Democritus University of Thrace, 69100 Komotini, Greece;
10
Ephorate of Antiquities of Florina, Hellenic Ministry of Culture & Sports, 106 82 Athens, Greece;
11
Ephorate of Antiquities of Chalkidiki and Mount Athos, Hellenic Ministry of Culture & Sports, 106 82 Athens, Greece;
12
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5245;
13
Department of Mathematics, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland;
14
Department of Protohistory and Near Eastern Archeology, Faculty of Letters, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey;
15
Institute of Oriental and European Archaeology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1010 Vienna, Austria;
16
Netherlands Institute in Turkey, Beyoglu 34433, Istanbul, Turkey;
17
Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London WC1H 0PY, United Kingdom;
18
Anthropology Unit, Department of Genetics & Evolution, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland;
19
Laboratory of Anthropology, Department of History and Ethnology, Democritus University of Thrace, 69100 Komotini, Greece cpapage@he.duth.gr jburger@uni-mainz.de.
20
Palaeogenetics Group, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany; cpapage@he.duth.gr jburger@uni-mainz.de.

Abstract

Farming and sedentism first appeared in southwestern Asia during the early Holocene and later spread to neighboring regions, including Europe, along multiple dispersal routes. Conspicuous uncertainties remain about the relative roles of migration, cultural diffusion, and admixture with local foragers in the early Neolithization of Europe. Here we present paleogenomic data for five Neolithic individuals from northern Greece and northwestern Turkey spanning the time and region of the earliest spread of farming into Europe. We use a novel approach to recalibrate raw reads and call genotypes from ancient DNA and observe striking genetic similarity both among Aegean early farmers and with those from across Europe. Our study demonstrates a direct genetic link between Mediterranean and Central European early farmers and those of Greece and Anatolia, extending the European Neolithic migratory chain all the way back to southwestern Asia.

KEYWORDS:

Anatolia; Greece; Mesolithic; Neolithic; paleogenomics

PMID:
27274049
PMCID:
PMC4922144
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1523951113
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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