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Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 15;7(1):15644. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15480-9.

The maternal genetic make-up of the Iberian Peninsula between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Archaeogenetics in the Institute of Archaeology, Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. szecsenyi-nagy.anna@btk.mta.hu.
2
Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.
3
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
4
Departamento de Prehistoria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Arcadia-General Foundation of Valladolid University, Valladolid, Spain.
6
German Mummy Project, Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen, Mannheim, Germany.
7
Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie gGmbH, Mannheim, Germany.
8
Romano-Germanic Commission, German Archaeological Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
9
State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Museum of Prehistory, Halle, Germany.
10
Departamento de Historia y Filosofía, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares, Spain.
11
Departamento de Prehistoria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
12
Professional Archaeologist, Parla (Madrid), Spain.
13
Cronos SC Arqueología y Patrimonio, Burgos, Spain.
14
Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
15
Museo Arqueológico de Alicante-MARQ, Alicante, Spain.
16
Departamento de Prehistoria, Arqueología, Historia Antigua, Filología Griega y Filología Latina, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
17
Departamento de Prehistoria, Arqueología, Historia Antigua, Historia Medieval y Ciencias y Técnicas Historiográficas, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
18
Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.
19
Laboratory of Prehistory, CIAS, Department of Anthropology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
20
UNIARQ, University of Lisbon, Lisboa, Portugal.
21
Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Museu Geológico, Lisboa, Portugal.
22
Instituto Politécnico de Tomar, Instituto Terra e Memória, Geosciences Centre of Coimbra University, Tomar, Portugal.
23
Programa de Capacitação Institucional MCTIC/MPEG, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil.
24
Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, Mount Mercy University, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States of America.
25
Arrago Ltd, Barcelona, Spain.
26
Museo Arquelógico de Lorca, Lorca, Spain.
27
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
28
Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus Universitário do Guamá, Belém, Brazil.
29
Servicio Territorial de Cultura de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
30
Departamento de Ciencias Sociais e de Gestao, Universidade Aberta, Lisboa, Portugal.
31
Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources (CIBIO-InBIO) & Directorate-General for Cultural Heritage (DGPC), Lisboa, Portugal.
32
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
33
Arqueología Estudios, Murcia, Spain.
34
Technical archaeologist, Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain.
35
Arpa Patrimonio Ltd, Alicante, Spain.
36
Centro de Arqueologia da Universidade de Lisboa (Uniarq), Lisboa, Portugal.
37
Grupo de Investigación HUM-949 TELLUS, Prehistoria y Arqueología en el Sur de Iberia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
38
ARGEA Ltd., Madrid, Spain.
39
GIPSIA Ltd., Toledo, Spain.
40
German Archaeological Institute Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
41
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
42
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Austria.
43
Center for Natural and Cultural History of Man, Danube Private University, Krems, Austria. kurt.alt@unibas.ch.
44
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Environmental Science, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland. kurt.alt@unibas.ch.

Abstract

Agriculture first reached the Iberian Peninsula around 5700 BCE. However, little is known about the genetic structure and changes of prehistoric populations in different geographic areas of Iberia. In our study, we focus on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic (~ 5500-3000 BCE), Chalcolithic (~ 3000-2200 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (~ 2200-1500 BCE). We report ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals (151 HVS-I sequences) from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date. Similar to other parts of Europe, we observe a discontinuity between hunter-gatherers and the first farmers of the Neolithic. During the subsequent periods, we detect regional continuity of Early Neolithic lineages across Iberia, however the genetic contribution of hunter-gatherers is generally higher than in other parts of Europe and varies regionally. In contrast to ancient DNA findings from Central Europe, we do not observe a major turnover in the mtDNA record of the Iberian Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, suggesting that the population history of the Iberian Peninsula is distinct in character.

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