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Microglia express CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3, but of these, CCR5 is the principal coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dementia isolates.

Albright AV, Shieh JT, Itoh T, Lee B, Pleasure D, O'Connor MJ, Doms RW, González-Scarano F.

J Virol. 1999 Jan;73(1):205-13.


Isolated human astrocytes are not susceptible to infection by M- and T-tropic HIV-1 strains despite functional expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4.

Boutet A, Salim H, Taoufik Y, Lledo PM, Vincent JD, Delfraissy JF, Tardieu M.

Glia. 2001 May;34(3):165-77.


Role of the beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of monocytes and microglia.

Ghorpade A, Xia MQ, Hyman BT, Persidsky Y, Nukuna A, Bock P, Che M, Limoges J, Gendelman HE, Mackay CR.

J Virol. 1998 Apr;72(4):3351-61.


V3 recombinants indicate a central role for CCR5 as a coreceptor in tissue infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Chan SY, Speck RF, Power C, Gaffen SL, Chesebro B, Goldsmith MA.

J Virol. 1999 Mar;73(3):2350-8.


Macrophage tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from brain and lymphoid tissues predicts neurotropism independent of coreceptor specificity.

Gorry PR, Bristol G, Zack JA, Ritola K, Swanstrom R, Birch CJ, Bell JE, Bannert N, Crawford K, Wang H, Schols D, De Clercq E, Kunstman K, Wolinsky SM, Gabuzda D.

J Virol. 2001 Nov;75(21):10073-89.


Interactions between HIV-1 gp120, chemokines, and cultured adult microglial cells.

Albright AV, Martín J, O'Connor M, González-Scarano F.

J Neurovirol. 2001 Jun;7(3):196-207.


Nonproductive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human fetal astrocytes: independence from CD4 and major chemokine receptors.

Sabri F, Tresoldi E, Di Stefano M, Polo S, Monaco MC, Verani A, Fiore JR, Lusso P, Major E, Chiodi F, Scarlatti G.

Virology. 1999 Nov 25;264(2):370-84.


Chemokine coreceptor usage by diverse primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Zhang L, He T, Huang Y, Chen Z, Guo Y, Wu S, Kunstman KJ, Brown RC, Phair JP, Neumann AU, Ho DD, Wolinsky SM.

J Virol. 1998 Nov;72(11):9307-12.


In vivo evolution of HIV-1 co-receptor usage and sensitivity to chemokine-mediated suppression.

Scarlatti G, Tresoldi E, Björndal A, Fredriksson R, Colognesi C, Deng HK, Malnati MS, Plebani A, Siccardi AG, Littman DR, Fenyö EM, Lusso P.

Nat Med. 1997 Nov;3(11):1259-65.


Immunohistochemical analysis of CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 in the human brain: potential mechanisms for HIV dementia.

van der Meer P, Ulrich AM, Gonźalez-Scarano F, Lavi E.

Exp Mol Pathol. 2000 Dec;69(3):192-201.


Lineage-specific expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor/coreceptors in differentiating hematopoietic precursors: correlation with susceptibility to T- and M-tropic HIV and chemokine-mediated HIV resistance.

Chelucci C, Casella I, Federico M, Testa U, Macioce G, Pelosi E, Guerriero R, Mariani G, Giampaolo A, Hassan HJ, Peschle C.

Blood. 1999 Sep 1;94(5):1590-600.


Expression and use of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptors by human alveolar macrophages.

Worgall S, Connor R, Kaner RJ, Fenamore E, Sheridan K, Singh R, Crystal RG.

J Virol. 1999 Jul;73(7):5865-74.


CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia.

He J, Chen Y, Farzan M, Choe H, Ohagen A, Gartner S, Busciglio J, Yang X, Hofmann W, Newman W, Mackay CR, Sodroski J, Gabuzda D.

Nature. 1997 Feb 13;385(6617):645-9.


The CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors are both used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolates from subtype C.

Cilliers T, Nhlapo J, Coetzer M, Orlovic D, Ketas T, Olson WC, Moore JP, Trkola A, Morris L.

J Virol. 2003 Apr;77(7):4449-56.


Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates, like HIV-1 isolates, frequently use CCR5 but show promiscuity in coreceptor usage.

Mörner A, Björndal A, Albert J, Kewalramani VN, Littman DR, Inoue R, Thorstensson R, Fenyö EM, Björling E.

J Virol. 1999 Mar;73(3):2343-9.


Influence of the CCR2-V64I polymorphism on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor activity and on chemokine receptor function of CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4.

Lee B, Doranz BJ, Rana S, Yi Y, Mellado M, Frade JM, Martinez-A C, O'Brien SJ, Dean M, Collman RG, Doms RW.

J Virol. 1998 Sep;72(9):7450-8.


Expression and function of chemokine receptors on human thymocytes: implications for infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Taylor JR Jr, Kimbrell KC, Scoggins R, Delaney M, Wu L, Camerini D.

J Virol. 2001 Sep;75(18):8752-60.


Role of MIP-1beta and RANTES in HIV-1 infection of microglia: inhibition of infection and induction by IFNbeta.

Kitai R, Zhao ML, Zhang N, Hua LL, Lee SC.

J Neuroimmunol. 2000 Oct 2;110(1-2):230-9.


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