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Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP.

Miller RA, Chu Q, Xie J, Foretz M, Viollet B, Birnbaum MJ.

Nature. 2013 Feb 14;494(7436):256-60. doi: 10.1038/nature11808. Epub 2013 Jan 6.


Differential AMPK phosphorylation by glucagon and metformin regulates insulin signaling in human hepatic cells.

Aw DK, Sinha RA, Xie SY, Yen PM.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 May 16;447(4):569-73. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.04.031. Epub 2014 Apr 13.


AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B.

Johanns M, Lai YC, Hsu MF, Jacobs R, Vertommen D, Van Sande J, Dumont JE, Woods A, Carling D, Hue L, Viollet B, Foretz M, Rider MH.

Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 8;7:10856. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10856.


Activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway Antagonizes Metformin Suppression of Hepatic Glucose Production.

He L, Chang E, Peng J, An H, McMillin SM, Radovick S, Stratakis CA, Wondisford FE.

J Biol Chem. 2016 May 13;291(20):10562-70. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.719666. Epub 2016 Mar 21.


An energetic tale of AMPK-independent effects of metformin.

Miller RA, Birnbaum MJ.

J Clin Invest. 2010 Jul;120(7):2267-70. doi: 10.1172/JCI43661. Epub 2010 Jun 23. Review.


Low concentrations of metformin suppress glucose production in hepatocytes through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

Cao J, Meng S, Chang E, Beckwith-Fickas K, Xiong L, Cole RN, Radovick S, Wondisford FE, He L.

J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 25;289(30):20435-46.


Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation stimulates hepatic lipid oxidation and restores hepatic signalling alteration induced by a high-fat diet in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Svegliati-Baroni G, Saccomanno S, Rychlicki C, Agostinelli L, De Minicis S, Candelaresi C, Faraci G, Pacetti D, Vivarelli M, Nicolini D, Garelli P, Casini A, Manco M, Mingrone G, Risaliti A, Frega GN, Benedetti A, Gastaldelli A.

Liver Int. 2011 Oct;31(9):1285-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02462.x. Epub 2011 Feb 15.


Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action.

Zhou G, Myers R, Li Y, Chen Y, Shen X, Fenyk-Melody J, Wu M, Ventre J, Doebber T, Fujii N, Musi N, Hirshman MF, Goodyear LJ, Moller DE.

J Clin Invest. 2001 Oct;108(8):1167-74.


Revisiting the mechanisms of metformin action in the liver.

Viollet B, Foretz M.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2013 May;74(2):123-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2013.03.006. Epub 2013 Apr 10. Review.


Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces hepatic lipogenesis via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

Ben-Shlomo S, Zvibel I, Shnell M, Shlomai A, Chepurko E, Halpern Z, Barzilai N, Oren R, Fishman S.

J Hepatol. 2011 Jun;54(6):1214-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2010.09.032. Epub 2010 Oct 26.


AMP-activated protein kinase regulates glucagon secretion from mouse pancreatic alpha cells.

Leclerc I, Sun G, Morris C, Fernandez-Millan E, Nyirenda M, Rutter GA.

Diabetologia. 2011 Jan;54(1):125-34. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1929-z. Epub 2010 Oct 13.


Changes in hormone responsiveness and cyclic AMP metabolism in rat hepatocytes during primary culture and effects of supplementing the medium with insulin and dexamethasone.

Christoffersen T, Refsnes M, Brønstad GO, Ostby E, Huse J, Haffner F, Sand TE, Hunt NH, Sonne O.

Eur J Biochem. 1984 Jan 16;138(2):217-26.


Metformin--mode of action and clinical implications for diabetes and cancer.

Pernicova I, Korbonits M.

Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Mar;10(3):143-56. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.256. Epub 2014 Jan 7. Review.


Metformin and salicylate synergistically activate liver AMPK, inhibit lipogenesis and improve insulin sensitivity.

Ford RJ, Fullerton MD, Pinkosky SL, Day EA, Scott JW, Oakhill JS, Bujak AL, Smith BK, Crane JD, Blümer RM, Marcinko K, Kemp BE, Gerstein HC, Steinberg GR.

Biochem J. 2015 May 15;468(1):125-32. doi: 10.1042/BJ20150125.


Current understanding of metformin effect on the control of hyperglycemia in diabetes.

An H, He L.

J Endocrinol. 2016 Mar;228(3):R97-106. doi: 10.1530/JOE-15-0447. Epub 2016 Jan 7. Review.


Metformin alleviates hepatosteatosis by restoring SIRT1-mediated autophagy induction via an AMP-activated protein kinase-independent pathway.

Song YM, Lee YH, Kim JW, Ham DS, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee HC, Lee BW.

Autophagy. 2015;11(1):46-59. doi: 10.4161/15548627.2014.984271.


Dissecting the actions of widely used diabetes drugs.

Unger RH, Berglund ED, Habener JF, Cherrington AD.

Nat Med. 2013 Mar;19(3):272-3. doi: 10.1038/nm.3123. No abstract available.


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