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Cyclic GMP-AMP is an endogenous second messenger in innate immune signaling by cytosolic DNA.

Wu J, Sun L, Chen X, Du F, Shi H, Chen C, Chen ZJ.

Science. 2013 Feb 15;339(6121):826-30. doi: 10.1126/science.1229963. Epub 2012 Dec 20.


Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates the type I interferon pathway.

Sun L, Wu J, Du F, Chen X, Chen ZJ.

Science. 2013 Feb 15;339(6121):786-91. doi: 10.1126/science.1232458. Epub 2012 Dec 20.


Immunology. Sensing the dark side of DNA.

O'Neill LA.

Science. 2013 Feb 15;339(6121):763-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1234724. No abstract available.


DNA sensing unchained.

Ablasser A, Hornung V.

Cell Res. 2013 May;23(5):585-7. doi: 10.1038/cr.2013.28. Epub 2013 Feb 19.


Single amino acid change in STING leads to constitutive active signaling.

Tang ED, Wang CY.

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 19;10(3):e0120090. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120090. eCollection 2015 Mar 19.


Cyclic GMP-AMP containing mixed phosphodiester linkages is an endogenous high-affinity ligand for STING.

Zhang X, Shi H, Wu J, Zhang X, Sun L, Chen C, Chen ZJ.

Mol Cell. 2013 Jul 25;51(2):226-35. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2013.05.022. Epub 2013 Jun 6.


A host type I interferon response is induced by cytosolic sensing of the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP.

McWhirter SM, Barbalat R, Monroe KM, Fontana MF, Hyodo M, Joncker NT, Ishii KJ, Akira S, Colonna M, Chen ZJ, Fitzgerald KA, Hayakawa Y, Vance RE.

J Exp Med. 2009 Aug 31;206(9):1899-911. doi: 10.1084/jem.20082874. Epub 2009 Aug 3.


Cell intrinsic immunity spreads to bystander cells via the intercellular transfer of cGAMP.

Ablasser A, Schmid-Burgk JL, Hemmerling I, Horvath GL, Schmidt T, Latz E, Hornung V.

Nature. 2013 Nov 28;503(7477):530-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12640. Epub 2013 Sep 29.


The helicase DDX41 recognizes the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP to activate a type I interferon immune response.

Parvatiyar K, Zhang Z, Teles RM, Ouyang S, Jiang Y, Iyer SS, Zaver SA, Schenk M, Zeng S, Zhong W, Liu ZJ, Modlin RL, Liu YJ, Cheng G.

Nat Immunol. 2012 Dec;13(12):1155-61. doi: 10.1038/ni.2460. Epub 2012 Nov 11.


Crosstalk between the cGAS DNA sensor and Beclin-1 autophagy protein shapes innate antimicrobial immune responses.

Liang Q, Seo GJ, Choi YJ, Kwak MJ, Ge J, Rodgers MA, Shi M, Leslie BJ, Hopfner KP, Ha T, Oh BH, Jung JU.

Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Feb 12;15(2):228-38. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.01.009.


STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors.

Deng L, Liang H, Xu M, Yang X, Burnette B, Arina A, Li XD, Mauceri H, Beckett M, Darga T, Huang X, Gajewski TF, Chen ZJ, Fu YX, Weichselbaum RR.

Immunity. 2014 Nov 20;41(5):843-52. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.10.019. Epub 2014 Nov 6.


Transmission of innate immune signaling by packaging of cGAMP in viral particles.

Gentili M, Kowal J, Tkach M, Satoh T, Lahaye X, Conrad C, Boyron M, Lombard B, Durand S, Kroemer G, Loew D, Dalod M, Théry C, Manel N.

Science. 2015 Sep 11;349(6253):1232-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3628. Epub 2015 Jul 30.


The innate immune DNA sensor cGAS produces a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide that activates human STING.

Diner EJ, Burdette DL, Wilson SC, Monroe KM, Kellenberger CA, Hyodo M, Hayakawa Y, Hammond MC, Vance RE.

Cell Rep. 2013 May 30;3(5):1355-61. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.05.009. Epub 2013 May 23.


STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP.

Burdette DL, Monroe KM, Sotelo-Troha K, Iwig JS, Eckert B, Hyodo M, Hayakawa Y, Vance RE.

Nature. 2011 Sep 25;478(7370):515-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10429.


Antitumor Activity of cGAMP via Stimulation of cGAS-cGAMP-STING-IRF3 Mediated Innate Immune Response.

Li T, Cheng H, Yuan H, Xu Q, Shu C, Zhang Y, Xu P, Tan J, Rui Y, Li P, Tan X.

Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 12;6:19049. doi: 10.1038/srep19049.


Viruses transfer the antiviral second messenger cGAMP between cells.

Bridgeman A, Maelfait J, Davenne T, Partridge T, Peng Y, Mayer A, Dong T, Kaever V, Borrow P, Rehwinkel J.

Science. 2015 Sep 11;349(6253):1228-32. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3632. Epub 2015 Jul 30.


Single nucleotide polymorphisms of human STING can affect innate immune response to cyclic dinucleotides.

Yi G, Brendel VP, Shu C, Li P, Palanathan S, Cheng Kao C.

PLoS One. 2013 Oct 21;8(10):e77846. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077846. eCollection 2013 Oct 21.


Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway.

Dai P, Wang W, Cao H, Avogadri F, Dai L, Drexler I, Joyce JA, Li XD, Chen Z, Merghoub T, Shuman S, Deng L.

PLoS Pathog. 2014 Apr 17;10(4):e1003989. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003989. eCollection 2014 Apr 17.


Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is an innate immune sensor of HIV and other retroviruses.

Gao D, Wu J, Wu YT, Du F, Aroh C, Yan N, Sun L, Chen ZJ.

Science. 2013 Aug 23;341(6148):903-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1240933. Epub 2013 Aug 8.


The cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway of cytosolic DNA sensing and signaling.

Cai X, Chiu YH, Chen ZJ.

Mol Cell. 2014 Apr 24;54(2):289-96. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2014.03.040. Review.

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