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Melanocortin-4 receptors expressed by cholinergic neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

Rossi J, Balthasar N, Olson D, Scott M, Berglund E, Lee CE, Choi MJ, Lauzon D, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK.

Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):195-204. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.01.010.


Differential control of metabolic and cardiovascular functions by melanocortin-4 receptors in proopiomelanocortin neurons.

do Carmo JM, da Silva AA, Rushing JS, Pace B, Hall JE.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013 Aug 15;305(4):R359-68. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00518.2012. Epub 2013 Jul 10.


Divergence of melanocortin pathways in the control of food intake and energy expenditure.

Balthasar N, Dalgaard LT, Lee CE, Yu J, Funahashi H, Williams T, Ferreira M, Tang V, McGovern RA, Kenny CD, Christiansen LM, Edelstein E, Choi B, Boss O, Aschkenasi C, Zhang CY, Mountjoy K, Kishi T, Elmquist JK, Lowell BB.

Cell. 2005 Nov 4;123(3):493-505.


Weight-independent effects of roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose homeostasis via melanocortin-4 receptors in mice and humans.

Zechner JF, Mirshahi UL, Satapati S, Berglund ED, Rossi J, Scott MM, Still CD, Gerhard GS, Burgess SC, Mirshahi T, Aguirre V.

Gastroenterology. 2013 Mar;144(3):580-590.e7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.11.022. Epub 2012 Nov 15.


Genetic dissection of neuronal pathways controlling energy homeostasis.

Balthasar N.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Aug;14 Suppl 5:222S-227S. Review.


Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Sohn JW, Harris LE, Berglund ED, Liu T, Vong L, Lowell BB, Balthasar N, Williams KW, Elmquist JK.

Cell. 2013 Jan 31;152(3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.12.022.


Direct leptin action on POMC neurons regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice.

Berglund ED, Vianna CR, Donato J Jr, Kim MH, Chuang JC, Lee CE, Lauzon DA, Lin P, Brule LJ, Scott MM, Coppari R, Elmquist JK.

J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar;122(3):1000-9. doi: 10.1172/JCI59816. Epub 2012 Feb 13.


Analysis of the therapeutic functions of novel melanocortin receptor agonists in MC3R- and MC4R-deficient C57BL/6J mice.

Kumar KG, Sutton GM, Dong JZ, Roubert P, Plas P, Halem HA, Culler MD, Yang H, Dixit VD, Butler AA.

Peptides. 2009 Oct;30(10):1892-900. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2009.07.012. Epub 2009 Jul 29.


Double leptin and melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutations have an additive effect on fat mass and are associated with reduced effects of leptin on weight loss and food intake.

Trevaskis JL, Butler AA.

Endocrinology. 2005 Oct;146(10):4257-65. Epub 2005 Jun 30. Erratum in: Endocrinology. 2005 Dec;146(12):5387.


MC4R-expressing glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus regulate feeding and are synaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus.

Shah BP, Vong L, Olson DP, Koda S, Krashes MJ, Ye C, Yang Z, Fuller PM, Elmquist JK, Lowell BB.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 9;111(36):13193-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407843111. Epub 2014 Aug 25.


Impaired coordination of nutrient intake and substrate oxidation in melanocortin-4 receptor knockout mice.

Albarado DC, McClaine J, Stephens JM, Mynatt RL, Ye J, Bannon AW, Richards WG, Butler AA.

Endocrinology. 2004 Jan;145(1):243-52. Epub 2003 Oct 9.


Regulation of glucose tolerance and sympathetic activity by MC4R signaling in the lateral hypothalamus.

Morgan DA, McDaniel LN, Yin T, Khan M, Jiang J, Acevedo MR, Walsh SA, Ponto LL, Norris AW, Lutter M, Rahmouni K, Cui H.

Diabetes. 2015 Jun;64(6):1976-87. doi: 10.2337/db14-1257. Epub 2015 Jan 20.


Multinodal regulation of the arcuate/paraventricular nucleus circuit by leptin.

Ghamari-Langroudi M, Srisai D, Cone RD.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 4;108(1):355-60. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1016785108. Epub 2010 Dec 15.


Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation.

Xu Y, Wu Z, Sun H, Zhu Y, Kim ER, Lowell BB, Arenkiel BR, Xu Y, Tong Q.

Cell Metab. 2013 Dec 3;18(6):860-70. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.11.003.


The expression of MC4Rs in D1R neurons regulates food intake and locomotor sensitization to cocaine.

Cui H, Lutter M.

Genes Brain Behav. 2013 Aug;12(6):658-65. doi: 10.1111/gbb.12057. Epub 2013 Jul 17.


G-protein-independent coupling of MC4R to Kir7.1 in hypothalamic neurons.

Ghamari-Langroudi M, Digby GJ, Sebag JA, Millhauser GL, Palomino R, Matthews R, Gillyard T, Panaro BL, Tough IR, Cox HM, Denton JS, Cone RD.

Nature. 2015 Apr 2;520(7545):94-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14051. Epub 2015 Jan 19.


Melanocortin-4 receptor signaling is required for weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

Hatoum IJ, Stylopoulos N, Vanhoose AM, Boyd KL, Yin DP, Ellacott KL, Ma LL, Blaszczyk K, Keogh JM, Cone RD, Farooqi IS, Kaplan LM.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;97(6):E1023-31. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-3432. Epub 2012 Apr 6.


VGF ablation blocks the development of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in several mouse models of obesity.

Watson E, Hahm S, Mizuno TM, Windsor J, Montgomery C, Scherer PE, Mobbs CV, Salton SR.

Endocrinology. 2005 Dec;146(12):5151-63. Epub 2005 Sep 1.


The melanocortin system and energy balance.

Butler AA.

Peptides. 2006 Feb;27(2):281-90. Epub 2006 Jan 23. Review.


Knockout studies defining different roles for melanocortin receptors in energy homeostasis.

Butler AA, Cone RD.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Jun;994:240-5.


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