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Acute hydrocortisone treatment increases anxiety but not fear in healthy volunteers: a fear-potentiated startle study.

Grillon C, Heller R, Hirschhorn E, Kling MA, Pine DS, Schulkin J, Vythilingam M.

Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Mar 15;69(6):549-55. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.12.013. Epub 2011 Jan 31.


Two-week treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduces contextual anxiety but not cued fear in healthy volunteers: a fear-potentiated startle study.

Grillon C, Chavis C, Covington MF, Pine DS.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Mar;34(4):964-71. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.141. Epub 2008 Sep 17.


The CRH1 antagonist GSK561679 increases human fear but not anxiety as assessed by startle.

Grillon C, Hale E, Lieberman L, Davis A, Pine DS, Ernst M.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Mar 13;40(5):1064-71. doi: 10.1038/npp.2014.316.


The benzodiazepine alprazolam dissociates contextual fear from cued fear in humans as assessed by fear-potentiated startle.

Grillon C, Baas JM, Pine DS, Lissek S, Lawley M, Ellis V, Levine J.

Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Oct 1;60(7):760-6. Epub 2006 Apr 21.


Acute tryptophan depletion increases translational indices of anxiety but not fear: serotonergic modulation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis?

Robinson OJ, Overstreet C, Allen PS, Pine DS, Grillon C.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Jul;37(8):1963-71. doi: 10.1038/npp.2012.43. Epub 2012 Apr 11.


A single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram exacerbates anxiety in humans: a fear-potentiated startle study.

Grillon C, Levenson J, Pine DS.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Jan;32(1):225-31. Epub 2006 Sep 13.


Benzodiazepines have no effect on fear-potentiated startle in humans.

Baas JM, Grillon C, Böcker KB, Brack AA, Morgan CA 3rd, Kenemans JL, Verbaten MN.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 May;161(3):233-47. Epub 2002 Mar 20.


Cortisol and DHEA-S are associated with startle potentiation during aversive conditioning in humans.

Grillon C, Pine DS, Baas JM, Lawley M, Ellis V, Charney DS.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jun;186(3):434-41. Epub 2005 Jul 29.


Comparison of the effects of diazepam on the fear-potentiated startle reflex and the fear-inhibited light reflex in man.

Bitsios P, Philpott A, Langley RW, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E.

J Psychopharmacol. 1999;13(3):226-34.


Hydrocortisone suppression of the fear-potentiated startle response and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Miller MW, McKinney AE, Kanter FS, Korte KJ, Lovallo WR.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Aug;36(7):970-80. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.12.009. Epub 2011 Jan 26.


Validating a human model for anxiety using startle potentiated by cue and context: the effects of alprazolam, pregabalin, and diphenhydramine.

Baas JM, Mol N, Kenemans JL, Prinssen EP, Niklson I, Xia-Chen C, Broeyer F, van Gerven J.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Jul;205(1):73-84. doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1516-5. Epub 2009 May 5. Erratum in: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Jun;210(3):451.


Differential effects of alprazolam on the baseline and fear-potentiated startle reflex in humans: a dose-response study.

Riba J, Rodríguez-Fornells A, Urbano G, Morte A, Antonijoan R, Barbanoj MJ.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Oct;157(4):358-67.


Alcohol selectively reduces anxiety but not fear: startle response during unpredictable versus predictable threat.

Moberg CA, Curtin JJ.

J Abnorm Psychol. 2009 May;118(2):335-47. doi: 10.1037/a0015636.


Differential effects of the CRF-R1 antagonist GSK876008 on fear-potentiated, light- and CRF-enhanced startle suggest preferential involvement in sustained vs phasic threat responses.

Walker D, Yang Y, Ratti E, Corsi M, Trist D, Davis M.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 May;34(6):1533-42. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.210. Epub 2008 Dec 10.


Fear-potentiated startle in rats.

Davis M.

Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2001 May;Chapter 8:Unit 8.11A. doi: 10.1002/0471142301.ns0811as14.


Effects of oxytocin on background anxiety in rats with high or low baseline startle.

Ayers L, Agostini A, Schulkin J, Rosen JB.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 Jun;233(11):2165-72. doi: 10.1007/s00213-016-4267-0. Epub 2016 Mar 23.


Effects of lorazepam on fear-potentiated startle responses in man.

Graham SJ, Scaife JC, Langley RW, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E, Xi L, Crumley T, Calder N, Gottesdiener K, Wagner JA.

J Psychopharmacol. 2005 May;19(3):249-58.


Measuring anxious responses to predictable and unpredictable threat in children and adolescents.

Schmitz A, Merikangas K, Swendsen H, Cui L, Heaton L, Grillon C.

J Exp Child Psychol. 2011 Oct;110(2):159-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.02.014. Epub 2011 Mar 26.


Oxytocin receptor neurotransmission in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis facilitates the acquisition of cued fear in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats.

Moaddab M, Dabrowska J.

Neuropharmacology. 2017 Jul 15;121:130-139. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.04.039. Epub 2017 Apr 26.


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