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Impaired kynurenine pathway metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia.

Sathyasaikumar KV, Stachowski EK, Wonodi I, Roberts RC, Rassoulpour A, McMahon RP, Schwarcz R.

Schizophr Bull. 2011 Nov;37(6):1147-56. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbq112. Epub 2010 Oct 29.


Oral administration of a specific kynurenic acid synthesis (KAT II) inhibitor attenuates evoked glutamate release in rat prefrontal cortex.

Bortz DM, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Neuropharmacology. 2017 Jul 15;121:69-78. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.04.023. Epub 2017 Apr 15.


On the relationship between the two branches of the kynurenine pathway in the rat brain in vivo.

Amori L, Guidetti P, Pellicciari R, Kajii Y, Schwarcz R.

J Neurochem. 2009 Apr;109(2):316-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05893.x. Epub 2009 Feb 6.


A systemically-available kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) inhibitor restores nicotine-evoked glutamatergic activity in the cortex of rats.

Koshy Cherian A, Gritton H, Johnson DE, Young D, Kozak R, Sarter M.

Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jul;82:41-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.03.004. Epub 2014 Mar 16.


Downregulated kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene expression and enzyme activity in schizophrenia and genetic association with schizophrenia endophenotypes.

Wonodi I, Stine OC, Sathyasaikumar KV, Roberts RC, Mitchell BD, Hong LE, Kajii Y, Thaker GK, Schwarcz R.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Jul;68(7):665-74. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.71.


The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex.

Wu HQ, Pereira EF, Bruno JP, Pellicciari R, Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R.

J Mol Neurosci. 2010 Jan;40(1-2):204-10. doi: 10.1007/s12031-009-9235-2. Epub 2009 Aug 19.


Astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid modulates basal and evoked cortical acetylcholine release.

Zmarowski A, Wu HQ, Brooks JM, Potter MC, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Eur J Neurosci. 2009 Feb;29(3):529-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06594.x.


Cortical kynurenine pathway metabolism: a novel target for cognitive enhancement in Schizophrenia.

Wonodi I, Schwarcz R.

Schizophr Bull. 2010 Mar;36(2):211-8. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbq002. Epub 2010 Feb 10. Review.


L-Tryptophan-kynurenine pathway enzymes are therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric diseases: Focus on cell type differences.

Fujigaki H, Yamamoto Y, Saito K.

Neuropharmacology. 2017 Jan;112(Pt B):264-274. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.01.011. Epub 2016 Jan 6. Review.


Perinatal kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition in rodents: pathophysiological implications.

Ceresoli-Borroni G, Guidetti P, Amori L, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R.

J Neurosci Res. 2007 Mar;85(4):845-54.


Endogenous kynurenic acid regulates extracellular GABA levels in the rat prefrontal cortex.

Beggiato S, Tanganelli S, Fuxe K, Antonelli T, Schwarcz R, Ferraro L.

Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jul;82:11-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.02.019. Epub 2014 Mar 7.


The kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Erhardt S, Schwieler L, Imbeault S, Engberg G.

Neuropharmacology. 2017 Jan;112(Pt B):297-306. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.05.020. Epub 2016 May 28. Review.


Cortical kynurenic acid bi-directionally modulates prefrontal glutamate levels as assessed by microdialysis and rapid electrochemistry.

Konradsson-Geuken A, Wu HQ, Gash CR, Alexander KS, Campbell A, Sozeri Y, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Neuroscience. 2010 Sep 15;169(4):1848-59. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.05.052. Epub 2010 Jun 19.


Acute elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility: normalization by the alpha7 positive modulator galantamine.

Alexander KS, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Apr;220(3):627-37. doi: 10.1007/s00213-011-2539-2. Epub 2011 Oct 26.


Relationship between neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites and reductions in right medial prefrontal cortical thickness in major depressive disorder.

Meier TB, Drevets WC, Wurfel BE, Ford BN, Morris HM, Victor TA, Bodurka J, Teague TK, Dantzer R, Savitz J.

Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Mar;53:39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2015.11.003. Epub 2015 Nov 4.


Targeted deletion of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase in mice: a new tool for studying kynurenine pathway metabolism in periphery and brain.

Giorgini F, Huang SY, Sathyasaikumar KV, Notarangelo FM, Thomas MA, Tararina M, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Muchowski PJ.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Dec 20;288(51):36554-66. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.503813. Epub 2013 Nov 4.


Activation of the kynurenine pathway and increased production of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid following traumatic brain injury in humans.

Yan EB, Frugier T, Lim CK, Heng B, Sundaram G, Tan M, Rosenfeld JV, Walker DW, Guillemin GJ, Morganti-Kossmann MC.

J Neuroinflammation. 2015 May 30;12:110. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0328-2.


The KMO allele encoding Arg452 is associated with psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1, and with increased CSF KYNA level and reduced KMO expression.

Lavebratt C, Olsson S, Backlund L, Frisén L, Sellgren C, Priebe L, Nikamo P, Träskman-Bendz L, Cichon S, Vawter MP, Osby U, Engberg G, Landén M, Erhardt S, Schalling M.

Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;19(3):334-41. doi: 10.1038/mp.2013.11. Epub 2013 Mar 5.


Elevated levels of kynurenic acid during gestation produce neurochemical, morphological, and cognitive deficits in adulthood: implications for schizophrenia.

Pershing ML, Bortz DM, Pocivavsek A, Fredericks PJ, Jørgensen CV, Vunck SA, Leuner B, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Neuropharmacology. 2015 Mar;90:33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.10.017. Epub 2014 Nov 1.


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