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Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 4 subunit knockout mice are resistant to the amnestic effect of isoflurane.

Rau V, Iyer SV, Oh I, Chandra D, Harrison N, Eger EI 2nd, Fanselow MS, Homanics GE, Sonner JM.

Anesth Analg. 2009 Dec;109(6):1816-22. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bf6ae6.


Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor β3 subunit forebrain-specific knockout mice are resistant to the amnestic effect of isoflurane.

Rau V, Oh I, Liao M, Bodarky C, Fanselow MS, Homanics GE, Sonner JM, Eger EI 2nd.

Anesth Analg. 2011 Sep;113(3):500-4. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182273aff. Epub 2011 Aug 3.


Beta3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors are not major targets for the amnesic and immobilizing actions of isoflurane.

Liao M, Sonner JM, Jurd R, Rudolph U, Borghese CM, Harris RA, Laster MJ, Eger EI 2nd.

Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug;101(2):412-8, table of contents.


Inhaled anesthetic responses of recombinant receptors and knockin mice harboring α2(S270H/L277A) GABA(A) receptor subunits that are resistant to isoflurane.

Werner DF, Swihart A, Rau V, Jia F, Borghese CM, McCracken ML, Iyer S, Fanselow MS, Oh I, Sonner JM, Eger EI 2nd, Harrison NL, Harris RA, Homanics GE.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Jan;336(1):134-44. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.170431. Epub 2010 Aug 31.


Alpha 1 subunit-containing GABA type A receptors in forebrain contribute to the effect of inhaled anesthetics on conditioned fear.

Sonner JM, Cascio M, Xing Y, Fanselow MS, Kralic JE, Morrow AL, Korpi ER, Hardy S, Sloat B, Eger EI 2nd, Homanics GE.

Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul;68(1):61-8. Epub 2005 Apr 15.


HCN1 Channels Contribute to the Effects of Amnesia and Hypnosis but not Immobility of Volatile Anesthetics.

Zhou C, Liang P, Liu J, Ke B, Wang X, Li F, Li T, Bayliss DA, Chen X.

Anesth Analg. 2015 Sep;121(3):661-666. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000830.


Behavioral pharmacogenetic analysis on the role of the α4 GABA(A) receptor subunit in the ethanol-mediated impairment of hippocampus-dependent contextual learning.

Cushman JD, Moore MD, Jacobs NS, Olsen RW, Fanselow MS.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Nov;35(11):1948-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01546.x. Epub 2011 Sep 21.


Selective enhancement of tonic GABAergic inhibition in murine hippocampal neurons by low concentrations of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane.

Caraiscos VB, Newell JG, You-Ten KE, Elliott EM, Rosahl TW, Wafford KA, MacDonald JF, Orser BA.

J Neurosci. 2004 Sep 29;24(39):8454-8.


Normal acute behavioral responses to moderate/high dose ethanol in GABAA receptor alpha 4 subunit knockout mice.

Chandra D, Werner DF, Liang J, Suryanarayanan A, Harrison NL, Spigelman I, Olsen RW, Homanics GE.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Jan;32(1):10-8. Epub 2007 Dec 12.


Isoflurane causes neocortical but not hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in mice.

Fidalgo AR, Cibelli M, White JP, Nagy I, Wan Y, Ma D.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012 Sep;56(8):1052-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2012.02691.x. Epub 2012 Apr 4.


Isoflurane is a potent modulator of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors in the thalamus.

Jia F, Yue M, Chandra D, Homanics GE, Goldstein PA, Harrison NL.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):1127-35. Epub 2007 Dec 19.


Isoflurane enhances both fast and slow synaptic inhibition in the hippocampus at amnestic concentrations.

Dai S, Perouansky M, Pearce RA.

Anesthesiology. 2012 Apr;116(4):816-23. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31824be0e3.


Trace and contextual fear conditioning is enhanced in mice lacking the alpha4 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor.

Moore MD, Cushman J, Chandra D, Homanics GE, Olsen RW, Fanselow MS.

Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010 Mar;93(3):383-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2009.12.004. Epub 2009 Dec 14.


Slowing of the hippocampal θ rhythm correlates with anesthetic-induced amnesia.

Perouansky M, Rau V, Ford T, Oh SI, Perkins M, Eger EI 2nd, Pearce RA.

Anesthesiology. 2010 Dec;113(6):1299-309. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181f90ccc.


Heteromeric nicotinic inhibition by isoflurane does not mediate MAC or loss of righting reflex.

Flood P, Sonner JM, Gong D, Coates KM.

Anesthesiology. 2002 Oct;97(4):902-5.


Isoflurane antagonizes the capacity of flurothyl or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane to impair fear conditioning to context and tone.

Eger EI 2nd, Xing Y, Pearce R, Shafer S, Laster MJ, Zhang Y, Fanselow MS, Sonner JM.

Anesth Analg. 2003 Apr;96(4):1010-8, table of contents.


Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors do not mediate the immobility produced by isoflurane.

Zhang Y, Sonner JM, Eger EI 2nd, Stabernack CR, Laster MJ, Raines DE, Harris RA.

Anesth Analg. 2004 Jul;99(1):85-90.


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