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Physical and chemical factors influencing the germination of Clostridium difficile spores.

Wheeldon LJ, Worthington T, Hilton AC, Elliott TS, Lambert PA.

J Appl Microbiol. 2008 Dec;105(6):2223-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03965.x.


Chenodeoxycholate is an inhibitor of Clostridium difficile spore germination.

Sorg JA, Sonenshein AL.

J Bacteriol. 2009 Feb;191(3):1115-7. doi: 10.1128/JB.01260-08. Epub 2008 Dec 5.


Mapping interactions between germinants and Clostridium difficile spores.

Howerton A, Ramirez N, Abel-Santos E.

J Bacteriol. 2011 Jan;193(1):274-82. doi: 10.1128/JB.00980-10. Epub 2010 Oct 22.


Inhibiting the initiation of Clostridium difficile spore germination using analogs of chenodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid.

Sorg JA, Sonenshein AL.

J Bacteriol. 2010 Oct;192(19):4983-90. doi: 10.1128/JB.00610-10. Epub 2010 Jul 30.


Histidine acts as a co-germinant with glycine and taurocholate for Clostridium difficile spores.

Wheeldon LJ, Worthington T, Lambert PA.

J Appl Microbiol. 2011 Apr;110(4):987-94.


Kinetic evidence for the presence of putative germination receptors in Clostridium difficile spores.

Ramirez N, Liggins M, Abel-Santos E.

J Bacteriol. 2010 Aug;192(16):4215-22. doi: 10.1128/JB.00488-10. Epub 2010 Jun 18.


Spores of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates display a diverse germination response to bile salts.

Heeg D, Burns DA, Cartman ST, Minton NP.

PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32381. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032381. Epub 2012 Feb 22.


Reexamining the Germination Phenotypes of Several Clostridium difficile Strains Suggests Another Role for the CspC Germinant Receptor.

Bhattacharjee D, Francis MB, Ding X, McAllister KN, Shrestha R, Sorg JA.

J Bacteriol. 2015 Dec 14;198(5):777-86. doi: 10.1128/JB.00908-15.


Germination of spores of Clostridium difficile strains, including isolates from a hospital outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD).

Paredes-Sabja D, Bond C, Carman RJ, Setlow P, Sarker MR.

Microbiology. 2008 Aug;154(Pt 8):2241-50. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.2008/016592-0. Erratum in: Microbiology. 2009 Apr;155(Pt 4):1376.


SleC is essential for germination of Clostridium difficile spores in nutrient-rich medium supplemented with the bile salt taurocholate.

Burns DA, Heap JT, Minton NP.

J Bacteriol. 2010 Feb;192(3):657-64. doi: 10.1128/JB.01209-09. Epub 2009 Nov 20.


Bile salts and glycine as cogerminants for Clostridium difficile spores.

Sorg JA, Sonenshein AL.

J Bacteriol. 2008 Apr;190(7):2505-12. doi: 10.1128/JB.01765-07. Epub 2008 Feb 1.


Analysis of factors influencing the rate of germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis by very high pressure.

Black EP, Wei J, Atluri S, Cortezzo DE, Koziol-Dube K, Hoover DG, Setlow P.

J Appl Microbiol. 2007 Jan;102(1):65-76.


Effect of various sodium taurocholate preparations on the recovery of Clostridium difficile spores.

Kamiya S, Yamakawa K, Ogura H, Nakamura S.

Microbiol Immunol. 1987;31(11):1117-20.


Clostridium difficile spore germination: an update.

Burns DA, Heap JT, Minton NP.

Res Microbiol. 2010 Nov;161(9):730-4. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2010.09.007. Epub 2010 Sep 21. Review.


Antimicrobial efficacy of copper surfaces against spores and vegetative cells of Clostridium difficile: the germination theory.

Wheeldon LJ, Worthington T, Lambert PA, Hilton AC, Lowden CJ, Elliott TS.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Sep;62(3):522-5. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn219. Epub 2008 Jun 10.


Germination efficiency of clinical Clostridium difficile spores and correlation with ribotype, disease severity and therapy failure.

Moore P, Kyne L, Martin A, Solomon K.

J Med Microbiol. 2013 Sep;62(Pt 9):1405-13. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.056614-0. Epub 2013 Mar 21.


Triggering germination represents a novel strategy to enhance killing of Clostridium difficile spores.

Nerandzic MM, Donskey CJ.

PLoS One. 2010 Aug 19;5(8):e12285. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012285.

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