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Energetic responses are triggered by caudal brainstem melanocortin receptor stimulation and mediated by local sympathetic effector circuits.

Skibicka KP, Grill HJ.

Endocrinology. 2008 Jul;149(7):3605-16. doi: 10.1210/en.2007-1754. Epub 2008 Mar 27.


Brainstem melanocortin 3/4 receptor stimulation increases uncoupling protein gene expression in brown fat.

Williams DL, Bowers RR, Bartness TJ, Kaplan JM, Grill HJ.

Endocrinology. 2003 Nov;144(11):4692-7. Epub 2003 Jul 31.


Differential activation of the sympathetic innervation of adipose tissues by melanocortin receptor stimulation.

Brito MN, Brito NA, Baro DJ, Song CK, Bartness TJ.

Endocrinology. 2007 Nov;148(11):5339-47. Epub 2007 Aug 16.


Thermogenesis activated by central melanocortin signaling is dependent on neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) area.

Fan W, Morrison SF, Cao WH, Yu P.

Brain Res. 2007 Nov 7;1179:61-9. Epub 2007 Apr 6.


Food intake reductions and increases in energetic responses by hindbrain leptin and melanotan II are enhanced in mice with POMC-specific PTP1B deficiency.

De Jonghe BC, Hayes MR, Zimmer DJ, Kanoski SE, Grill HJ, Bence KK.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep 1;303(5):E644-51. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00009.2012. Epub 2012 Jul 3.


Melanocortin-4 receptor mRNA expressed in sympathetic outflow neurons to brown adipose tissue: neuroanatomical and functional evidence.

Song CK, Vaughan CH, Keen-Rhinehart E, Harris RB, Richard D, Bartness TJ.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008 Aug;295(2):R417-28. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00174.2008. Epub 2008 Jun 11.


Hindbrain leptin stimulation induces anorexia and hyperthermia mediated by hindbrain melanocortin receptors.

Skibicka KP, Grill HJ.

Endocrinology. 2009 Apr;150(4):1705-11. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-1316. Epub 2008 Dec 4.


Ventromedial hypothalamic melanocortin receptor activation: regulation of activity energy expenditure and skeletal muscle thermogenesis.

Gavini CK, Jones WC 2nd, Novak CM.

J Physiol. 2016 Sep 15;594(18):5285-301. doi: 10.1113/JP272352. Epub 2016 May 29.


Anatomical dissociation of melanocortin receptor agonist effects on taste- and gut-sensitive feeding processes.

Baird JP, Palacios M, LaRiviere M, Grigg LA, Lim C, Matute E, Lord J.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Oct;301(4):R1044-56. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00577.2010. Epub 2011 Jul 6.


Hypothalamic and hindbrain melanocortin receptors contribute to the feeding, thermogenic, and cardiovascular action of melanocortins.

Skibicka KP, Grill HJ.

Endocrinology. 2009 Dec;150(12):5351-61. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0804. Epub 2009 Oct 23.


The PVH as a site of CB1-mediated stimulation of thermogenesis by MC4R agonism in male rats.

Monge-Roffarello B, Labbe SM, Roy MC, Lemay ML, Coneggo E, Samson P, Lanfray D, Richard D.

Endocrinology. 2014 Sep;155(9):3448-58. doi: 10.1210/en.2013-2092. Epub 2014 Jun 20.


Characterization of a novel melanocortin receptor-containing node in the SNS outflow circuitry to brown adipose tissue involved in thermogenesis.

Vaughan CH, Shrestha YB, Bartness TJ.

Brain Res. 2011 Sep 9;1411:17-27. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2011.07.003. Epub 2011 Jul 13.


Energetic responses to cold temperatures in rats lacking forebrain-caudal brain stem connections.

Nautiyal KM, Dailey M, Brito N, Brito MN, Harris RB, Bartness TJ, Grill HJ.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008 Sep;295(3):R789-98. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.90394.2008. Epub 2008 Jul 16.


The medial preoptic nucleus as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of melanotan II in male rats.

Monge-Roffarello B, Labbe SM, Lenglos C, Caron A, Lanfray D, Samson P, Richard D.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014 Jul 15;307(2):R158-66.


Melanocortin 3/4 receptors in paraventricular nucleus modulate sympathetic outflow and blood pressure.

Li P, Cui BP, Zhang LL, Sun HJ, Liu TY, Zhu GQ.

Exp Physiol. 2013 Feb;98(2):435-43. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2012.067256. Epub 2012 Aug 7.


Brain stem melanocortinergic modulation of meal size and identification of hypothalamic POMC projections.

Zheng H, Patterson LM, Phifer CB, Berthoud HR.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Jul;289(1):R247-58. Epub 2005 Mar 3.


Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature.

Lute B, Jou W, Lateef DM, Goldgof M, Xiao C, PiƱol RA, Kravitz AV, Miller NR, Huang YG, Girardet C, Butler AA, Gavrilova O, Reitman ML.

Cell Metab. 2014 Aug 5;20(2):333-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.05.021. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

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