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Leucine-enriched essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion following resistance exercise enhances mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle.

Dreyer HC, Drummond MJ, Pennings B, Fujita S, Glynn EL, Chinkes DL, Dhanani S, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb;294(2):E392-400. Epub 2007 Dec 4.


Essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion before resistance exercise does not enhance postexercise muscle protein synthesis.

Fujita S, Dreyer HC, Drummond MJ, Glynn EL, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 May;106(5):1730-9. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.90395.2008. Epub 2008 Jun 5.


Skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to resistance exercise and essential amino acids is delayed with aging.

Drummond MJ, Dreyer HC, Pennings B, Fry CS, Dhanani S, Dillon EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 May;104(5):1452-61. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00021.2008. Epub 2008 Mar 6.


Nutrient signalling in the regulation of human muscle protein synthesis.

Fujita S, Dreyer HC, Drummond MJ, Glynn EL, Cadenas JG, Yoshizawa F, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

J Physiol. 2007 Jul 15;582(Pt 2):813-23. Epub 2007 May 3.


Adding protein to a carbohydrate supplement provided after endurance exercise enhances 4E-BP1 and RPS6 signaling in skeletal muscle.

Morrison PJ, Hara D, Ding Z, Ivy JL.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Apr;104(4):1029-36. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01173.2007. Epub 2008 Jan 31.


Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis.

Pasiakos SM, McClung HL, McClung JP, Margolis LM, Andersen NE, Cloutier GJ, Pikosky MA, Rood JC, Fielding RA, Young AJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):809-18. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.017061. Epub 2011 Jul 20.


Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched-chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise.

Moberg M, Apró W, Ekblom B, van Hall G, Holmberg HC, Blomstrand E.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016 Jun 1;310(11):C874-84. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00374.2015. Epub 2016 Apr 6.


Resistance exercise increases AMPK activity and reduces 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle.

Dreyer HC, Fujita S, Cadenas JG, Chinkes DL, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

J Physiol. 2006 Oct 15;576(Pt 2):613-24. Epub 2006 Jul 27.


Expression of growth-related genes in young and older human skeletal muscle following an acute stimulation of protein synthesis.

Drummond MJ, Miyazaki M, Dreyer HC, Pennings B, Dhanani S, Volpi E, Esser KA, Rasmussen BB.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Apr;106(4):1403-11. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.90842.2008. Epub 2008 Sep 11.


Blood flow restriction during low-intensity resistance exercise increases S6K1 phosphorylation and muscle protein synthesis.

Fujita S, Abe T, Drummond MJ, Cadenas JG, Dreyer HC, Sato Y, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Sep;103(3):903-10. Epub 2007 Jun 14. Erratum in: J Appl Physiol. 2008 Apr;104(4):1256.


Resistance exercise increases leg muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling independent of sex.

Dreyer HC, Fujita S, Glynn EL, Drummond MJ, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010 May;199(1):71-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02074.x. Epub 2010 Jan 12.


Whey protein intake after resistance exercise activates mTOR signaling in a dose-dependent manner in human skeletal muscle.

Kakigi R, Yoshihara T, Ozaki H, Ogura Y, Ichinoseki-Sekine N, Kobayashi H, Naito H.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014 Apr;114(4):735-42. doi: 10.1007/s00421-013-2812-7. Epub 2014 Jan 3.


Muscle protein breakdown has a minor role in the protein anabolic response to essential amino acid and carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise.

Glynn EL, Fry CS, Drummond MJ, Dreyer HC, Dhanani S, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Aug;299(2):R533-40. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00077.2010. Epub 2010 Jun 2.


Leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing mTORC1 activation.

Suryawan A, Jeyapalan AS, Orellana RA, Wilson FA, Nguyen HV, Davis TA.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;295(4):E868-75. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.90314.2008. Epub 2008 Aug 5.


Addition of carbohydrate or alanine to an essential amino acid mixture does not enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism.

Glynn EL, Fry CS, Timmerman KL, Drummond MJ, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.

J Nutr. 2013 Mar;143(3):307-14. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.168203. Epub 2013 Jan 23.


Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men.

Bird SP, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 May;97(2):225-38. Epub 2006 Mar 24. Erratum in: Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 May;97(2):239.


Protein-leucine fed dose effects on muscle protein synthesis after endurance exercise.

Rowlands DS, Nelson AR, Phillips SM, Faulkner JA, Clarke J, Burd NA, Moore D, Stellingwerff T.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Mar;47(3):547-55. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000447.


Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

Apró W, Moberg M, Hamilton DL, Ekblom B, Rooyackers O, Holmberg HC, Blomstrand E.

FASEB J. 2015 Oct;29(10):4358-73. doi: 10.1096/fj.15-273474. Epub 2015 Jul 13.


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