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Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial.

Taubert D, Roesen R, Lehmann C, Jung N, Schömig E.

JAMA. 2007 Jul 4;298(1):49-60.


Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

Faridi Z, Njike VY, Dutta S, Ali A, Katz DL.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):58-63.


Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder ML.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):197-204.


Dark chocolate and reduced snack consumption in mildly hypertensive adults: an intervention study.

Koli R, Köhler K, Tonteri E, Peltonen J, Tikkanen H, Fogelholm M.

Nutr J. 2015 Aug 22;14:84. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0075-3.


Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

Ried K, Sullivan TR, Fakler P, Frank OR, Stocks NP.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;(8):CD008893. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008893.pub2. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 25;4:CD008893.


Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

Ried K, Sullivan T, Fakler P, Frank OR, Stocks NP.

BMC Med. 2010 Jun 28;8:39. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-39.


Postprandial effects of dark chocolate on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: results of a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

De Gottardi A, Berzigotti A, Seijo S, D'Amico M, Thormann W, Abraldes JG, García-Pagán JC, Bosch J.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep;96(3):584-90. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.040469. Epub 2012 Jul 18.


Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial.

Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Jul 8;9:22. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-22.


Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate.

Grassi D, Desideri G, Necozione S, Lippi C, Casale R, Properzi G, Blumberg JB, Ferri C.

J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1671-6.


High-polyphenol chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress during acute transient hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Mellor DD, Madden LA, Smith KA, Kilpatrick ES, Atkin SL.

Diabet Med. 2013 Apr;30(4):478-83. doi: 10.1111/dme.12030.


Effect of dark chocolate on nitric oxide serum levels and blood pressure in prehypertension subjects.

Sudarma V, Sukmaniah S, Siregar P.

Acta Med Indones. 2011 Oct;43(4):224-8.


Brachial and Cerebrovascular Functions Are Enhanced in Postmenopausal Women after Ingestion of Chocolate with a High Concentration of Cocoa.

Marsh CE, Carter HH, Guelfi KJ, Smith KJ, Pike KE, Naylor LH, Green DJ.

J Nutr. 2017 Sep;147(9):1686-1692. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.250225. Epub 2017 Aug 9.


Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, Kroon PA, Cohn JS, Rimm EB, Cassidy A.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):740-51. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.023457. Epub 2012 Feb 1. Review.


The short-term effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls.

Terai N, Gedenk A, Spoerl E, Pillunat LE, Stodtmeister R.

Acta Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug;92(5):e341-5. doi: 10.1111/aos.12373. Epub 2014 Mar 16.


Cardiovascular effects of flavanol-rich chocolate in patients with heart failure.

Flammer AJ, Sudano I, Wolfrum M, Thomas R, Enseleit F, Périat D, Kaiser P, Hirt A, Hermann M, Serafini M, Lévêques A, Lüscher TF, Ruschitzka F, Noll G, Corti R.

Eur Heart J. 2012 Sep;33(17):2172-80. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr448. Epub 2011 Dec 15.


Dark chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy in patients with peripheral artery disease.

Loffredo L, Perri L, Catasca E, Pignatelli P, Brancorsini M, Nocella C, De Falco E, Bartimoccia S, Frati G, Carnevale R, Violi F.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Jul 2;3(4). pii: e001072. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001072. Erratum in: J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Aug;3(4):e000456.


Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trial.

Mogollon JA, Bujold E, Lemieux S, Bourdages M, Blanchet C, Bazinet L, Couillard C, Noël M, Dodin S.

Nutr J. 2013 Apr 8;12:41. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-41.


Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

Miller KB, Hurst WJ, Flannigan N, Ou B, Lee CY, Smith N, Stuart DA.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9169-80. doi: 10.1021/jf901821x.


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