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Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

Dalmeijer GW, Olthof MR, Verhoef P, Bots ML, van der Schouw YT.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;62(3):386-94. Epub 2007 Mar 21.


Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

Bidulescu A, Chambless LE, Siega-Riz AM, Zeisel SH, Heiss G.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007 Jul 13;7:20.


Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study.

Cho E, Zeisel SH, Jacques P, Selhub J, Dougherty L, Colditz GA, Willett WC.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;83(4):905-11.


Choline and betaine intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk: a two-stage case-control study in China.

Zhang CX, Pan MX, Li B, Wang L, Mo XF, Chen YM, Lin FY, Ho SC.

Cancer Sci. 2013 Feb;104(2):250-8. doi: 10.1111/cas.12064. Epub 2012 Dec 26.


Dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients as predictors of plasma choline and betaine in middle-aged and elderly men and women.

Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Ulvik A, Drevon CA, Ueland PM.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1663-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26531.


Choline and betaine intake and risk of breast cancer among post-menopausal women.

Cho E, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, Willett WC.

Br J Cancer. 2010 Feb 2;102(3):489-94. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605510. Epub 2010 Jan 5.


The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women.

Chiuve SE, Giovannucci EL, Hankinson SE, Zeisel SH, Dougherty LW, Willett WC, Rimm EB.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1073-81.


Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

Lee JE, Jacques PF, Dougherty L, Selhub J, Giovannucci E, Zeisel SH, Cho E.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1303-10. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28456. Epub 2010 Mar 10.


DNA methylation potential: dietary intake and blood concentrations of one-carbon metabolites and cofactors in rural African women.

Dominguez-Salas P, Moore SE, Cole D, da Costa KA, Cox SE, Dyer RA, Fulford AJ, Innis SM, Waterland RA, Zeisel SH, Prentice AM, Hennig BJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;97(6):1217-27. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.048462. Epub 2013 Apr 10.


Intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 and the risk of CHD: the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort I.

Ishihara J, Iso H, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Okada K, Kita Y, Kokubo Y, Okayama A, Tsugane S; JPHC Study Group.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Feb;27(1):127-36.


Repeatability and measurement error in the assessment of choline and betaine dietary intake: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

Bidulescu A, Chambless LE, Siega-Riz AM, Zeisel SH, Heiss G.

Nutr J. 2009 Feb 20;8:14. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-14.


Plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, and choline and risk of peripheral artery disease.

Bertoia ML, Pai JK, Cooke JP, Joosten MM, Mittleman MA, Rimm EB, Mukamal KJ.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jul;235(1):94-101. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.04.010. Epub 2014 Apr 28.


Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Not Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk in Japanese Men and Women.

Nagata C, Wada K, Tamura T, Konishi K, Kawachi T, Tsuji M, Nakamura K.

J Nutr. 2015 Aug;145(8):1787-92. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.209296. Epub 2015 Jun 10.


Low folate status enhances pregnancy changes in plasma betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations and the association between betaine and homocysteine.

Fernàndez-Roig S, Cavallé-Busquets P, Fernandez-Ballart JD, Ballesteros M, Berrocal-Zaragoza MI, Salat-Batlle J, Ueland PM, Murphy MM.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;97(6):1252-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.054189. Epub 2013 Apr 17.


Betaine concentration as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine concentrations and the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations.

Melse-Boonstra A, Holm PI, Ueland PM, Olthof M, Clarke R, Verhoef P.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1378-82.


Ethnicity and folate influence choline status in young women consuming controlled nutrient intakes.

Hung J, Abratte CM, Wang W, Li R, Moriarty DJ, Caudill MA.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Apr;27(2):253-9.


Betaine is as effective as folate at re-synthesizing methionine for protein synthesis during moderate methionine deficiency in piglets.

McBreairty LE, Robinson JL, Harding SV, Randell EW, Brunton JA, Bertolo RF.

Eur J Nutr. 2016 Dec;55(8):2423-2430. Epub 2015 Sep 29.


Intake of phytosterols from natural sources and risk of cardiovascular disease in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-the Netherlands (EPIC-NL) population.

Ras RT, van der Schouw YT, Trautwein EA, Sioen I, Dalmeijer GW, Zock PL, Beulens JW.

Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015 Aug;22(8):1067-75. doi: 10.1177/2047487314554864. Epub 2014 Oct 10.


Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study.

Detopoulou P, Panagiotakos DB, Antonopoulou S, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):424-30.


Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health.

Olthof MR, Verhoef P.

Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Feb;6(1):15-22. Review.


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