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CpG motif-independent activation of TLR9 upon endosomal translocation of "natural" phosphodiester DNA.

Yasuda K, Rutz M, Schlatter B, Metzger J, Luppa PB, Schmitz F, Haas T, Heit A, Bauer S, Wagner H.

Eur J Immunol. 2006 Feb;36(2):431-6.


The sweetness of the DNA backbone drives Toll-like receptor 9.

Wagner H.

Curr Opin Immunol. 2008 Aug;20(4):396-400. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2008.06.013. Epub 2008 Jul 30. Review.


The DNA sugar backbone 2' deoxyribose determines toll-like receptor 9 activation.

Haas T, Metzger J, Schmitz F, Heit A, Müller T, Latz E, Wagner H.

Immunity. 2008 Mar;28(3):315-23. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.01.013.


Sequence independent interferon-alpha induction by multimerized phosphodiester DNA depends on spatial regulation of Toll-like receptor-9 activation in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

Haas T, Schmitz F, Heit A, Wagner H.

Immunology. 2009 Feb;126(2):290-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.02897.x. Epub 2008 Nov 15.


Endosomal translocation of vertebrate DNA activates dendritic cells via TLR9-dependent and -independent pathways.

Yasuda K, Yu P, Kirschning CJ, Schlatter B, Schmitz F, Heit A, Bauer S, Hochrein H, Wagner H.

J Immunol. 2005 May 15;174(10):6129-36.


Cross-talk between toll-like receptors 5 and 9 on activation of human immune responses.

Merlo A, Calcaterra C, Mènard S, Balsari A.

J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Sep;82(3):509-18. Epub 2007 Jun 22.


Vaccination with plasmid DNA activates dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) but functions in TLR9-deficient mice.

Spies B, Hochrein H, Vabulas M, Huster K, Busch DH, Schmitz F, Heit A, Wagner H.

J Immunol. 2003 Dec 1;171(11):5908-12.


Spatiotemporal regulation of heat shock protein 90-chaperoned self-DNA and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide for type I IFN induction via targeting to static early endosome.

Okuya K, Tamura Y, Saito K, Kutomi G, Torigoe T, Hirata K, Sato N.

J Immunol. 2010 Jun 15;184(12):7092-9. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1000490. Epub 2010 May 14.


Rational design of new CpG oligonucleotides that combine B cell activation with high IFN-alpha induction in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

Hartmann G, Battiany J, Poeck H, Wagner M, Kerkmann M, Lubenow N, Rothenfusser S, Endres S.

Eur J Immunol. 2003 Jun;33(6):1633-41.


Deoxynucleic acids from Cryptococcus neoformans activate myeloid dendritic cells via a TLR9-dependent pathway.

Nakamura K, Miyazato A, Xiao G, Hatta M, Inden K, Aoyagi T, Shiratori K, Takeda K, Akira S, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Adachi Y, Ohno N, Suzuki K, Fujita J, Kaku M, Kawakami K.

J Immunol. 2008 Mar 15;180(6):4067-74.


Properties regulating the nature of the plasmacytoid dendritic cell response to Toll-like receptor 9 activation.

Guiducci C, Ott G, Chan JH, Damon E, Calacsan C, Matray T, Lee KD, Coffman RL, Barrat FJ.

J Exp Med. 2006 Aug 7;203(8):1999-2008. Epub 2006 Jul 24.


Higher activation of TLR9 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells by microbial DNA compared with self-DNA based on CpG-specific recognition of phosphodiester DNA.

Coch C, Busch N, Wimmenauer V, Hartmann E, Janke M, Abdel-Mottaleb MM, Lamprecht A, Ludwig J, Barchet W, Schlee M, Hartmann G.

J Leukoc Biol. 2009 Sep;86(3):663-70. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0509314. Epub 2009 Jul 20.


Impact of modifications of heterocyclic bases in CpG dinucleotides on their immune-modulatory activity.

Vollmer J, Weeratna RD, Jurk M, Davis HL, Schetter C, Wüllner M, Wader T, Liu M, Kritzler A, Krieg AM.

J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Sep;76(3):585-93. Epub 2004 Jun 24.


Ligand-induced conformational changes allosterically activate Toll-like receptor 9.

Latz E, Verma A, Visintin A, Gong M, Sirois CM, Klein DC, Monks BG, McKnight CJ, Lamphier MS, Duprex WP, Espevik T, Golenbock DT.

Nat Immunol. 2007 Jul;8(7):772-9. Epub 2007 Jun 17.


DNA motifs suppressing TLR9 responses.

Trieu A, Roberts TL, Dunn JA, Sweet MJ, Stacey KJ.

Crit Rev Immunol. 2006;26(6):527-44. Review.


Natural and synthetic TLR7 ligands inhibit CpG-A- and CpG-C-oligodeoxynucleotide-induced IFN-alpha production.

Berghöfer B, Haley G, Frommer T, Bein G, Hackstein H.

J Immunol. 2007 Apr 1;178(7):4072-9.


Recruitment and endo-lysosomal activation of TLR9 in dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

Bartholomeu DC, Ropert C, Melo MB, Parroche P, Junqueira CF, Teixeira SM, Sirois C, Kasperkovitz P, Knetter CF, Lien E, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT.

J Immunol. 2008 Jul 15;181(2):1333-44.


The immunostimulatory activity of unmethylated and methylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide is dependent on their ability to colocalize with TLR9 in late endosomes.

de Jong SD, Basha G, Wilson KD, Kazem M, Cullis P, Jefferies W, Tam Y.

J Immunol. 2010 Jun 1;184(11):6092-102. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0802442. Epub 2010 Apr 28.

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