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Lead exposure inhibits fracture healing and is associated with increased chondrogenesis, delay in cartilage mineralization, and a decrease in osteoprogenitor frequency.

Carmouche JJ, Puzas JE, Zhang X, Tiyapatanaputi P, Cory-Slechta DA, Gelein R, Zuscik M, Rosier RN, Boyce BF, O'Keefe RJ, Schwarz EM.

Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Jun;113(6):749-55.


Diminished bone formation during diabetic fracture healing is related to the premature resorption of cartilage associated with increased osteoclast activity.

Kayal RA, Tsatsas D, Bauer MA, Allen B, Al-Sebaei MO, Kakar S, Leone CW, Morgan EF, Gerstenfeld LC, Einhorn TA, Graves DT.

J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Apr;22(4):560-8.


Modulation of endochondral ossification by MEK inhibitors PD0325901 and AZD6244 (Selumetinib).

El-Hoss J, Kolind M, Jackson MT, Deo N, Mikulec K, McDonald MM, Little CB, Little DG, Schindeler A.

Bone. 2014 Feb;59:151-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.11.013. Epub 2013 Nov 20.


Malfunction of bone marrow-derived osteoclasts and the delay of bone fracture healing in diabetic mice.

Kasahara T, Imai S, Kojima H, Katagi M, Kimura H, Chan L, Matsusue Y.

Bone. 2010 Sep;47(3):617-25. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2010.06.014. Epub 2010 Jun 19.


Inhibition of beta-catenin signaling by Pb leads to incomplete fracture healing.

Beier EE, Sheu TJ, Buckley T, Yukata K, O'Keefe R, Zuscik MJ, Puzas JE.

J Orthop Res. 2014 Nov;32(11):1397-405. doi: 10.1002/jor.22677. Epub 2014 Jul 21.


Effects of low-dose, intermittent treatment with recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34) on chondrogenesis in a model of experimental fracture healing.

Nakazawa T, Nakajima A, Shiomi K, Moriya H, Einhorn TA, Yamazaki M.

Bone. 2005 Nov;37(5):711-9. Epub 2005 Sep 6.


Thrombospondin-2 influences the proportion of cartilage and bone during fracture healing.

Taylor DK, Meganck JA, Terkhorn S, Rajani R, Naik A, O'Keefe RJ, Goldstein SA, Hankenson KD.

J Bone Miner Res. 2009 Jun;24(6):1043-54. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.090101.


Osteoblast-Specific Loss of IGF1R Signaling Results in Impaired Endochondral Bone Formation During Fracture Healing.

Wang T, Wang Y, Menendez A, Fong C, Babey M, Tahimic CG, Cheng Z, Li A, Chang W, Bikle DD.

J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Sep;30(9):1572-84. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2510.


Spatial and temporal gene expression in chondrogenesis during fracture healing and the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor.

Nakajima F, Ogasawara A, Goto K, Moriya H, Ninomiya Y, Einhorn TA, Yamazaki M.

J Orthop Res. 2001 Sep;19(5):935-44.


Collagen IX is indispensable for timely maturation of cartilage during fracture repair in mice.

Opolka A, Ratzinger S, Schubert T, Spiegel HU, Grifka J, Bruckner P, Probst A, Grässel S.

Matrix Biol. 2007 Mar;26(2):85-95. Epub 2006 Oct 3.


Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates endochondral ossification by regulating periosteal cell fate during bone repair.

Yu YY, Lieu S, Lu C, Colnot C.

Bone. 2010 Jul;47(1):65-73. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2010.03.012. Epub 2010 Mar 27.


Smoking delays chondrogenesis in a mouse model of closed tibial fracture healing.

El-Zawawy HB, Gill CS, Wright RW, Sandell LJ.

J Orthop Res. 2006 Dec;24(12):2150-8.


Elevated Lifetime Lead Exposure Impedes Osteoclast Activity and Produces an Increase in Bone Mass in Adolescent Mice.

Beier EE, Holz JD, Sheu TJ, Puzas JE.

Toxicol Sci. 2016 Feb;149(2):277-88. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfv234. Epub 2015 Oct 30.


Impaired fracture healing in the absence of TNF-alpha signaling: the role of TNF-alpha in endochondral cartilage resorption.

Gerstenfeld LC, Cho TJ, Kon T, Aizawa T, Tsay A, Fitch J, Barnes GL, Graves DT, Einhorn TA.

J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Sep;18(9):1584-92.


Diabetes causes the accelerated loss of cartilage during fracture repair which is reversed by insulin treatment.

Kayal RA, Alblowi J, McKenzie E, Krothapalli N, Silkman L, Gerstenfeld L, Einhorn TA, Graves DT.

Bone. 2009 Feb;44(2):357-63. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.10.042. Epub 2008 Oct 29.


Cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein and type II collagen expression during fracture healing are potential targets for Sox9 regulation.

Sakano S, Zhu Y, Sandell LJ.

J Bone Miner Res. 1999 Nov;14(11):1891-901. Erratum in: J Bone Miner Res 2000 Mar;15(3):609.


Bolus or weekly zoledronic acid administration does not delay endochondral fracture repair but weekly dosing enhances delays in hard callus remodeling.

McDonald MM, Dulai S, Godfrey C, Amanat N, Sztynda T, Little DG.

Bone. 2008 Oct;43(4):653-62. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.05.019. Epub 2008 Jun 3.


Bax deficiency in mice increases cartilage production during fracture repair through a mechanism involving increased chondrocyte proliferation without changes in apoptosis.

Rundle CH, Wang X, Sheng MH, Wergedal JE, Lau KH, Mohan S.

Bone. 2008 Nov;43(5):880-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.07.239. Epub 2008 Jul 29.


The effect of MS-818, newly synthesized pyrimidine compound, on fracture repair.

Yoshikawa M, Saura R, Mizuno K, Awaya A.

Kobe J Med Sci. 2000 Dec;46(6):265-82.


Effects of receptor activator of NFkappaB (RANK) signaling blockade on fracture healing.

Flick LM, Weaver JM, Ulrich-Vinther M, Abuzzahab F, Zhang X, Dougall WC, Anderson D, O'Keefe RJ, Schwarz EM.

J Orthop Res. 2003 Jul;21(4):676-84.

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