Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Neurosci Res. 1997 Dec;29(4):283-9.

Lombard reflex during PAG-induced vocalization in decerebrate cats.

Author information

1
Department of Otolaryngology, Asahikawa Medical School, Nishikagura, Japan.

Abstract

The Lombard reflex occurs when a speaker increases his vocal effort while speaking in the presence of ambient noise. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the Lombard reflex can be evoked during controlled vocalization in an animal model. In decerebrate cats, repetitive electrical stimulation was applied to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) to evoke vocalization. Pure tone auditory stimulation was delivered through a loudspeaker. The activities of the laryngeal adductor muscle, diaphragm and external oblique abdominal muscle and the voice intensity were measured during PAG stimulation, in the presence and absence of the auditory stimulation. To clarify the effects of the auditory laryngeal reflex on the activity of laryngeal adductor motoneurons, the amplitude of the laryngeal reflex evoked by single shock stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve was also measured during respiration, in the presence and absence of auditory stimulation. The sound made by the cats due to PAG-induced vocalization was augmented by exposure to auditory stimulation, and the activities of the laryngeal adductor muscle and external oblique abdominal muscle were also augmented. During respiration, auditory stimulation also increased the amplitude of the laryngeal reflex evoked in the laryngeal adductor muscle. These results demonstrate that the essential neuronal mechanisms for evoking the Lombard reflex exist within the brainstem.

PMID:
9527619
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center