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Epidemiol Infect. 1995 Feb;114(1):219-26.

An investigation of possible routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (Neethling).

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Division of Epidemiology, Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Woking, Surrey.


British cattle were infected with the South African (Neethling) strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and their clinical signs monitored over a 3-week period. Different routes of infection were assessed for effect on the clinical characteristics of the disease by using a clinical scoring system. Neither of 2 animals inoculated onto the conjunctival sac showed clinical signs of seroconverted. The intradermal route produced local lesions in 21 of 25 animals, and generalized infection in 4. In contrast the intravenous route produced generalized lesions in 8 of 11 animals. Seven uninfected animals were housed in contact with infected animals for 1 month. None developed clinical signs or produced detectable serum neutralizing antibodies. Six of seven of these animals were then challenged and were fully susceptible to infection. The results suggest that the transmission of LSDV between animals by contagion is extremely inefficient, and that parenteral inoculation of virus is required to establish infection. The high proportion of animals with generalized disease following intravenous inoculation implies that naturally occurring cases of generalized LSD may follow spread by intravenously feeding arthropods.

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