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Infect Immun. 1995 Dec;63(12):4862-7.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice by inducing nitric oxide production in infected gamma interferon-activated macrophages.

Author information

1
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and its intracellular replication are essential for continuation of the parasite life cycle and for production of Chagas' disease. T. cruzi is able to replicate in nucleated cells and can be killed by activated macrophages. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is one of the major stimuli for the activation of macrophages and has been shown to be a key activation factor for the killing of intracellular parasites through a mechanism dependent upon nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. We show that although the addition of exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) does not potentiate the trypanocidal activity of IFN-gamma in vitro, treatment of resistant C57BI/6 mice with an anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody increased parasitemia and mortality. In addition, the anti-TNF-alpha-treated animals had decreased NO production, both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting an important role for TNF-alpha in controlling infection. In order to better understand the role of TNF-alpha in the macrophage-mediating killing of parasites, cultures of T. cruzi-infected macrophages were treated with an anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody. IFN-gamma-activated macrophages failed to kill intracellular parasites following treatment with 100 micrograms of anti-TNF-alpha. In these cultures, the number of parasites released at various time points after infection was significantly increased while NO production was significantly reduced. We conclude that IFN-gamma-activated macrophages produce TNF-alpha after infection by T. cruzi and suggest that this cytokine plays a role in amplifying NO production and parasite killing.

PMID:
7591147
PMCID:
PMC173696
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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